中国农业气象

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大气CO2浓度升高对不同穗型冬小麦灌浆动态的影响

汪东炎,郭李萍,李豫婷,郑蕾,韩雪   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;2. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
  • 出版日期:2019-05-20 发布日期:2019-05-11
  • 作者简介:汪东炎(1993?),硕士生,主要从事气候资源与气候变化研究。E-mail: donyanwang@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金“冬小麦品种对高浓度CO2差异响应的机理研究”(41505100);国家重点研发计划“北部冬麦区丰产节水型优质强筋小麦品种筛选及其配套栽培技术”(2016YFD0300401)

Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration on Grain Filling Dynamics of Different Spike-type Winter Wheat

WANG Dong-yan, GUO Li-ping, LI Yu-ting, ZHENG Lei, HAN Xue   

  1. 1. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 2. College of Resources Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048
  • Online:2019-05-20 Published:2019-05-11

摘要:

利用开放式空气中CO2浓度升高系统(Free Air CO2 Enrichment,FACE),以CO2浓度为主处理,FACE圈内白天(5:30-18:00)CO2浓度550±17μL·L-1,对照浓度400±16μL·L-1,品种为副处理,选取大穗型(陕旱8675)、中穗型(京冬8号)和多穗型(胜利麦)3个小麦品种为研究对象进行实验,研究未来CO2浓度升高条件下,不同穗型冬小麦品种籽粒灌浆特征的动态变化。结果表明:(1)CO2浓度升高明显增加了各品种的初始粒重。中穗型品种京冬8号灌浆前期粒重增加,但最终籽粒重无影响,其灌浆时间和平均灌浆速率影响亦不明显;大穗型品种陕旱8675灌浆时间比对照延长19.3%,其籽粒重显著增加,穗上、中、下部增重分别为11.0%、20.9%、23.3%,全穗增重18.8%;CO2浓度升高后多穗型品种胜利麦灌浆速率的降低抵消了灌浆时间延长对籽粒总重的效应,其灌浆过程粒重增加不明显。(2)CO2浓度升高对多穗型品种京冬8号和大穗型品种陕旱8675灌浆参数(最大灌浆速率、到达最大灌浆速率的时间、平均灌浆速率和灌浆时间)的影响均表现为上部和下部穗大于中部穗,而多穗型品种胜利麦中部穗各灌浆参数变化幅度明显高于上、下部穗。(3)CO2浓度升高条件下,京冬8号和陕旱8675均表现为前期灌浆时间缩短,中、后期灌浆时间延长,而其在3个时期的平均灌浆速率变化正好相反;胜利麦在3个时期的灌浆时间均延长,平均灌浆速率降低。研究表明大穗型冬小麦品种比多穗型品种对大气CO2浓度增加的响应更明显。

关键词: FACE, 冬小麦, 小麦穗型, 籽粒灌浆

Abstract:

The free air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) system was used to study the grain filling dynamics of whole panicles and different positions of wheat panicle in different spike-type cultivars (medium-spike type, cv. Jindong8, large-spike type, cv. Shanhan8675 and multi-panicle type, cv. Triumph) under the elevated CO2 concentration of 550±17μL·L-1 (5:30-18:00) and the ambient CO2 concentration 400±16μL·L-1. The results showed that: (1) the initial grain weight was significantly increased under the elevated CO2 concentration. Elevated CO2 concentration increased the grain weight of Jingdong8 (medium-spike type) in the early grain filling stage with no effect on the final grain weight, and had no effect on the grain filling duration and average filling rate; Elevated CO2 prolonged the grain filling duration of Shanhan8675 (large-spike type) by 19.3% and increased grain weight significantly, the dry weight of the upper, middle and lower parts of the panicle was increased by 11.0%, 20.9% and 23.3%, respectively, and the whole panicle was increased by 18.8%; The Triumph (multi-panicle type) did not show significant increase in grain weight under elevated CO2 concentration, due to the lower grain-filling rate offset the prolonged duration effect to the mass maturity. (2) Regarding of the panicle positions, the elevated CO2 showed a positive effect of the filling parameters (the maximum grain-filling rate, the time reach maximum growth rate, grain filling duration and average grain filling rate) on the upper and lower position of wheat panicle of Jingdong8 and Shanhan8675, contrast with the Triumph’s middle panicle part of panicle. (3) Elevated CO2 shorten the duration of Jindong8 and Shanhan8675 in early grain-filling stage, whereas prolonged the duration of the middle and the last grain-filling stage, which was opposite to the average grain filling rate in the three periods; The grain filling duration of the three stages of Triumph was prolonged, while the average grain filling rate showed the opposite trends. The results suggest that the large-ear type winter wheat will have a better performance than multi-panicle type winter in a CO2-rich world.

Key words: FACE, Winter wheat, Variety, Grain filling