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20 May 2024 Volume 45 Issue 05
CMIP6 Models Optimization in Simulating Future Temperature Change over Guizhou Province
ZHANG Jiao-yan, YANG Yi, LI Yang, REN Man-lin, TAN Ya-heng
2024, 45(05):  449-460.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.001
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Based on the daily average temperature, daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature from the 18 global climate models that participated in the phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and their precedent phase project (CMIP5), and the 84 observational stations during 1986−2005, the capabilities of CMIP6 on simulating the temperature over Guizhou by Portrait and Taylor chat were evaluated. The best simulation results were selected to project the characteristics of temperature in Guizhou under three scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) from 2023 to 2100. The results showed that the CMIP6-MME (multi-model ensemble) generally had better performance in simulating the indices including the numbers of forest days (FD), the length of the growing season (GSL), the numbers of summer days (SU), the lowest value of the minimum temperature (TNN) and the mean temperature (Tav), respectively during 1986−2005. Compared to the reference period (1995−2014), FD decreased significantly, but GSL, SU, TNN and Tav increased obviously from 2023 to 2100 under three scenarios. Furthermore, it was indicated that FD (GSL, SU, TNN and Tav) were less (more) than that in 1995−2014 during the 21st century under three scenarios over Guizhou, and the decrease (increase) was proportional to the emission scenario, with the amplitude of FD (GSL) reducing (growing) from south to north, SU rising from northeast to southwest, TNN/Tav going up from southwest to northeast.
Simulated on Water and Nitrogen Optimization Management Model under Different Soil Water Shortage Conditions of Spring Wheat in Inner Mongolia Based on APSIM Model
WU Lu, CHENG Chen, YANG Fei-yun, FAN Dong-liang, SUN Xiang-wei
2024, 45(05):  461-471.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.002
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Water and nitrogen are the two main limiting factors on wheat growth. How to optimize the water and fertilizer management practices of irrigated spring wheat, so as to retain high and stable yield, maintain highly use efficiency of agricultural resources and to be environmentally friendly, is an urgent production problem need to be solved. The promotion of controlled experiment results is limited by experiment sites, experiment duration or the number of experiment designs, while the process-based crop models can effectively solve this difficulty. In recent years, the crop model has become a powerful and technical tool for exploring better crop planting management practices and for evaluating how agriculture production adapts to climate change. In this study authors collected experimental observation data (meteorological, crop, soil, and management data) of spring wheat (Yongliang 4) from 2010 to 2018 at the agricultural meteorological experimental station in Linhe district, Bayannur city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to determine the key genetic parameters of wheat growth and development in the APSIM-wheat model. Based on the calibrated model and meteorological data from1986 to 2020, we designed multiple intelligent management scenarios under different drought levels, and then explored the final optimal water and nitrogen management modes of spring wheat based on several key selection indicators (yield, water/fertilizer application rate, and water/fertilizer utilization efficiency). The results showed that: (1) the APSIM-wheat model can effectively reproduce the spring wheat development and growth with the RMSE of 1.96d to 3.21d for the spring wheat developmental stages (emergence, jointing, flowering and maturity). As for the wheat growth process (leaf area index (LAI), aboveground dry matter mass, and yield), the RMSE values were 1.65, 292.44g·m−2, and 588.96 kg·ha−1, respectively. (2) Based on the key selection indicators (yield, irrigation amount, water utilization efficiency (WUE), nitrogen fertilizer application amount, and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE)), the research concluded that the two management modes, that auto irrigation be applied when soil root layer (60cm) water deficit reached 40% (S3P40) and when soil root layer water deficit reached 50% (S3P50), were superior to other management modes. (3) Compared with the conventional management mode, the S3P40 management mode was preferred with the production goal to significantly improve yield, in which lead to a 14.4% increase in yield production. With the production goal to stabilize yield and reduce water and fertilizer application amount simultaneously, the S3P50 management mode was favored, which resulted in a 23.2% reduction in irrigation amount and 32.4% reduction in nitrogen application rate compared with traditional management mode.
Occurrence Characteristics and Research Status of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Air
LI Ye-shan, YANG Zhen-zhen, WANG Xue-rong, YAN Meng-meng, ZHANG Zhuo-yi, ZHANG Xiu, LI Hong-na
2024, 45(05):  472-483.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.003
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The extensive use of antibiotics in the medical and aquaculture industries has led to antibiotic resistance, be a global public health concern. Compared with soil and water, there are few reports on antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the air. To provide theoretical support for scientific and effective response to the cross-media migration of microbial resistance, this paper comprehensively reviewed the occurrence status, influencing factors and transmission mechanism of ARB and ARGs in different types of ambient air at home and abroad. The results showed that the abundance of ARB and ARGs in the air was affected by environmental conditions and sampling factors. The pollution was more serious in typical polluted areas such as animal farms, sewage treatment plants and hospitals. The dominant types of ARGs in the above environment were tetracyclines, sulfonamides and β-lactams. Among them, the abundance of ARGs in the air of animal farms was about 2−3 orders of magnitude higher than that in other environments. The highest abundance was found in pig farm compared to other animal houses. At present, there was still no standard for the sampling requirements of ARB and ARGs in the air. The sampling season, duration, particle size and coexisting pollutants all affected their detection. Air pollution, soil water content, rainfall and air mass movement were proved to play a certain role in affecting the spread of ARB and ARGs in the air. Based on it, the research on the migration mechanism of ARB and ARGs at the soil-air interface needs to be further intensified. The review aimed to comprehensively reveal the occurrence characteristics of ARB and ARGs in the air, and provide theoretical support for the scientific and effective response to the cross-media migration of microbial resistance.
Effect of Oligosaccharide Application on Metabolites in Bulk Soil of Cucumber during the Growing Stage
WANG Qiu-shui, DENG Jie, LIU Yue, ZUO Jia, YUAN Li-yan, GAO Li-juan, BAI Wen-bo
2024, 45(05):  484-492.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.004
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The application of oligosaccharides has been shown to have effects in regulating crop growth, delaying senescence and improving resistance. In order to investigate the mechanism and reveal the effects of oligosaccharides on metabolites in the rhizosphere soil surrounding the plant, a cucumber greenhouse experiment was conducted in this study. The mixed-oligosaccharide (KP) was selected as the preparation treatments, while tap water control (CK) were compared as controls. During the full flowering, full fruiting and seedling stages, the rhizosphere soil samples around cucumbers were collected and analyzed to identify the differences in metabolites among different treatment groups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results showed that the cucumber treated with oligosaccharides (KP) during the full flowering period showed significant differences in bulk soil metabolites when compared with the water control group (CK). Meanwhile, nonanoic acid was the most up regulated substance, with a difference multiple of 2.795. However, the amount of heterocyclic compounds and sugars decreased. The heterocyclic compounds showed the most significant reduction in substance content, by a difference multiple of 0.002. Based on the KEGG metabolic pathway analysis, there was a significant difference in metabolic pathways between KP and CK treatment, with a difference ratio of 83.33%. Based on differential metabolite enrichment analysis, it was believed that the mixed-oligosaccharides could increase the content of nonanoic acid in the rhizosphere soil by up regulating the expression of the lipoic acid pathway, while the decrease in heterocyclic compounds and carbohydrate content might be related to the down regulation of bacterial chemotaxis metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism pathways during the full flowering stage.
Spatio-temporal Variation and its Influence Factors on Net Primary Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
FAN Li, YE Zhao, ZHU Hao, ZHANG Ji, ZHU Yu-han
2024, 45(05):  493-505.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.005
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The carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems is an important element in the study of global and regional climate change and the impact of human activities. The Three Gorges Reservoir Area, as an important ecological environmental protection and restoration area in the Yangtze river basin, plays an extremely important role in global and regional carbon cycle under climate change. Therefore, based on the data of solar radiation, temperature, CO2 concentration and normalized vegetation index from 2000 to 2021, parameters were adjusted based on the C-FIX model, and a terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) estimation model were established in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (Chongqing section). Quantitative analysis of the e spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetation NPP from 2000 to 2021 was conducted using the barycenter model and trend analysis methods. The relative roles of climate change and human activities in influencing NPP were quantitatively distinguished using correlation analysis methods combined with the Miami model. The results showed that: (1) NPP in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area showed a fluctuating upward trend from 2000 to 2021, and the regional mean annual NPP increased from 666.02gC·m−2·y−1 to 809.04gC·m−2·y−1 from 2000 to 2021, with an increase of 17.68%. (2) The spatial distribution of NPP in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area gradually decreased from northeast to southwest, with an average annual NPP value of 762.3gC·m−2·y−1, among which the area with NPP >800gC·m−2·y−1 accounted for 46% of the total area of the study area, and was mainly distributed in the area of 400−900m altitude. (3) The NPP center of gravity in the study area showed a trend of moving from southwest to northeast, indicating that the NPP increment and growth rate of vegetation in the northeast part of the study area were higher than that in the central and western part of the study area during this period. (4) The changes of vegetation NPP in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were more sensitive to the effect of temperature, and the partial correlation coefficients between vegetation NPP and annual temperature range from −0.68 to 0.94, with the proportion of positively correlated areas being as high as 95.6%, and the partial correlation coefficients between vegetation NPP and annual precipitation range from −0.83 to 0.82, with the proportion of positively correlated areas being 75.7%, which were located in the majority of the areas along the north side of the Yangtze River, and the majority of the areas in Wulong and Fuling. (5)There was significant spatial heterogeneity in the relative roles of climate change and human activities on the changes of vegetation NPP in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and the areas in the state of vegetation recovery accounted for 93.63% of the total area, of which 45.24% were affected by climate change, and 46.72% of the areas in the state of vegetation recovery were affected by climate change and human activities.
Influence by Supplementary Red and Blue Light on the Growth and Development of Greenhouse Tomatoes and Fluorescence Characteristics
LUO Yuan, YE Lin, GUO Wen-zhong, ZHANG Xin, LIU Yi-han, CHEN Xiao-li
2024, 45(05):  506-516.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.006
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The tomato variety 'Micro Tom' is used as an experimental material in a fully artificial light-type plant factory. An LED light with adjustable illumination modes was used as the light source and a pure white LED light was used as the control. Different illumination mode, such as pure red light, pure blue light, mixed red and blue light, and alternating red and blue light were used as supplementary light. The influence of different red and blue supplemental lighting modes on the growth, development, and fluorescence characteristics of greenhouse tomatoes was explored. The results showed that: (1) in all treatments, the growth indicators and fruit weight of the tomato plants increased to a certain extent. The dynamic change of chlorophyll fluorescence was significantly affected by supplementary light. Pure red light supplementation had the greatest effect on the increase in plant height, stem thickness, leaf area, and yield of the tomato plants. Alternating red and blue light supplementation at intervals of 1h or 6h significantly promoted the increase in chlorophyll content and the improvement of PSII photosynthetic performance. (2) During the vegetative growth stage of tomatoes, under pure red light supplementation, the relative growth rate and absolute growth rate of plant height increased by 106.8% and 60% respectively compared to the control. The relative growth rate and absolute growth rate of stem thickness increased by 50% and 80% respectively. 44 days after sowing, the leaf area of the tomato plants under pure red light supplementation increased by 92.1% compared to the control.(3) During the reproductive growth period of tomatoes, compared with the control, 83 days after sowing, the number of fruits set under pure red light supplementation increased by 73.6%. The horizontal and vertical diameters and volume of tomato fruit increased by 34.4%, 35.3%, and 129.6% respectively.(4) Compared with the control, 44 days after sowing, the chlorophyll content in tomato leaves under alternating red and blue light supplementation at intervals of 1h or 6h increased by 30.3% and 31.8% respectively. 83 days after sowing, the performance index (PIABS) of tomato plants after alternating red and blue light supplementation at intervals of 1h or 6h increased by 100% and 30% respectively compared to the control. The electron transfer efficiency (ETo/CS) of PSII after alternating red and blue light supplementation at intervals of 1h or 6h increased by 16% and 23% respectively compared to the control. In summary, pure red light supplementation can effectively promote the growth and development of facility tomatoes. Alternating red and blue light supplementation at intervals of 1h or 6h significantly affects the fluorescence characteristics of tomatoes. In the future, the most suitable supplementary lighting mode can be chosen based on different production objectives.
Effects of Red and Blue LED Light Ratio on Growth and Photosynthesis of Tomato
SUN Bin, LV Lu-ping, LI Ling-zhi, LI Hai-ping, TANG Ting-ting, WANG Yuan, NIU Hua-lin
2024, 45(05):  517-524.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.007
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The tomato variety 'Provence' was used as the material, and the artificial light supplement test was carried out in the double-arch steel frame solar greenhouse, and T1 (2R3B, the ratio of red/blue light beads R:B=2:3), T2 (4R1B), T3 (6R1B), T4 (7R1B) four groups of red and blue light treatments were set up, and no artificial light was used as the control (CK) to explore the optimal red and blue light ratio for greenhouse tomato growth and photosynthetic response. The results showed that after 35 days of T1 treatment, the plant height, SPAD, transpiration rate (Tr) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of tomato were significantly increased by 26.7%, 19.6%, 107.6% and 34.3%, respectively, compared with the control group. After 35 days of T3 treatment, the stem diameter, flower number, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR) of tomato were significantly increased by 26.9%, 38.6%, 133.7%, 5.9%, 183.3%, 31.3% and 30.9%, respectively, compared with the control group. After 35 days of T4 treatment, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) was significantly increased by 4.0% compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, the growth and photosynthesis of tomato could be significantly promoted under different red and blue light supplement treatments. Among the four red and blue combination light treatments of 2R3B, 4R1B, 6R1B and 7R1B in this experiment, the comprehensive effect of each index under 6R1B treatment was the best, which could provide some theoretical guidance for LED light supplement in greenhouse tomato cultivation.
Effect of Low Temperature on Photosynthesis and Stomatal Characteristics of Strawberry Leaves During the Flowering Stage
ZHANG Han-qi, YANG Zai-qiang, LUO Jing, ZHANG Feng-yin
2024, 45(05):  525-536.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.008
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In order to elucidate the effects of low-temperature stress on the photosynthetic and stomatal properties of strawberry leaves during the flowering phase, the perennial strawberry cultivar 'Selva' was selected as the experimental material. The environmental control experiment was designed and conducted at Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST) with Venlo greenhouse and artificial climate chamber in 2022. Two low temperature levels (15℃/5℃, 20℃/10℃) were set, and each of them represented day temperature with night temperature. Treatment T1 and T2 were used to distinguish them. The duration of low temperature was set at 3d, 6d, and 9d. The plants grown in the greenhouse with temperature set at 25℃/15℃ were used as the control group (CK). Photosynthetic parameters and stomatal indices were determined for the leaves. The results showed that: (1) low temperature stress significantly inhibited the photosynthesis of strawberry, with the intensification of low temperature, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax), light saturation point (LSP), stomatal conductivity (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr) gradually decreased, while light compensation point (LCP), dark respiration rate (Rd), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal limit (Ls) and water use efficiency (WUE) tended to increase. The main cause of the reduced photosynthetic rate was stomatal restriction. (2) Low temperature stress reduced the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content (a+b) and carotenoids in leaves. However, as the duration lengthened, the photosynthetic pigment content increased slightly, although it remained significantly lower than CK. (3) Low temperature stress had a particularly significant effect on leaf stomatal characteristics, i.e. the stomatal length, stomatal width, stomatal open degree, stomatal perimeter, stomatal area and stomatal opening ratio, which all decreased significantly with the decrease of temperature and the increase of the duration. Stomatal density tended to decrease but not significantly. This study showed that low temperatures reduced the stomatal size and the chlorophyll content, inhibiting the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves during the flowering stage.
Design and Development of High-temperature Index Insurance Products for Hairy Crabs of the Yellow River Estuary
XIN Zhi-hong, YU Zhen-zhen, LIU Ke-qun, DENG Ai-juan, ZHAO Jin-shan, PANG Jin-zeng, WEI Sheng-wei, LI Qiang, XU Tao-quan
2024, 45(05):  537-548.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.009
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Using the daily temperature data from the Dongying national meteorological observatory from 1981−2021, the daily temperature and water temperature data of the agricultural waters of the Yellow River Estuary from 2019−2021, and the hairy crab yield data of the Yellow River Estuary in Dongying from 2004−2021, the meteorological yield reduction rate was calculated after the meteorological yield was separated by moving-average model, and the relationship between temperature factors and yield reduction rate during the growth cycle of hairy crabs was analyzed by correlation analysis, the high temperature index (HTI) was selected as the key factor, and the HTI-damage model was constructed by stepwise regression method, then the damage threshold and compensation rate were determined, and the high temperature index insurance product of hairy crab in the Yellow River Estuary was designed. With the improvement of production technology in recent years, the yield of hairy crabs increased in most years, but the yield reduction rate fluctuated obviously under the influence of meteorological conditions in different years, for example, in 2008 and 2019, high temperatures and typhoons and torrential rains caused a relative increase in yield loss, and the growth and development of hairy crabs were closely related to temperature, the daily mean effective accumulated temperature above 35℃ was significantly correlated with the yield reduction rate, which passed the 0.01 level test, the daily mean of effective accumulated temperature above 35℃, that is, the maximum of high temperature index reached 1.893℃·d, and the maximum of high temperature lead a 12.4% reduction of hairy crab yield. According to the calculation value of high temperature index-damage model, the high temperature disaster of hairy crab was further divided into five grades: mild, relatively mild, moderate, relatively severe and severe. Taking the HTI≥1.529℃·d as the trigger value of claims, the average amount of claims payable in the years when claims can occur is 294.04 yuan·667m−2, and the amount of claims ranges from 58.59 to 651.00 yuan·667m−2. The Yellow Estuary hairy crab high temperature weather index pure insurance rate was 6.61%, and the premium was 43.03 yuan·667m−2.
Risk Assessment of Agrometeorological Disasters in North China Under Warming EnvironmentⅠ:Agricultural Drought Risk Assessment and Adaptation Countermeasures Based on Comprehensive Index System Method
ZHU Jun, WANG Jin-chen, ZHANG Qi, HUANG Shao-feng, YANG Zai-qiang
2024, 45(05):  549-561.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.010
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Droughts are increasing in frequency and intensity as the global climate changes. Risk assessment for agricultural drought disasters is an important approach for disaster prevention and mitigation. Based on the formation mechanism of natural disaster risk, the index system model of agricultural drought risk assessment in North China was constructed, and the robustness of the established risk assessment model was tested by using the internal test method. Then based on the characteristics of agricultural drought risk formation in North China, the paper proposes corresponding risk prevention recommendations. The conclusions were as follows: when adjusting the indices and methods in the risk assessment model, the range of changes in the agricultural drought risk ranking for each city was mostly 1−2.5 places, and the model was relatively robust. With the exception of Beijing and Tianjin, which had the highest disaster prevention and mitigation capacity, central and northern China had the highest agricultural drought risk, which was previously linked to the high risk and vulnerability of these regions. The agricultural drought risk in northern Henan and southern Shandong is low, mainly due to the low risk. The 34 cities in North China can be divided into 6 agricultural drought risk clusters, which are not dispersed in space and cross-city distribution, and have good aggregation. Cluster 4, located in the northernmost mountainous areas, has the highest risk of drought, which is associated with high environmental vulnerability and low capacity for disaster prevention and mitigation, so agricultural areas should be reduced and agricultural input should be increased. Clusters 2, 5 and 6, located in the central and southern regions, have higher grain acreage and yields due to drought, so agricultural drought risk can be further reduced by increasing agricultural input and improving irrigation guarantee rate.
Research and Application of Weather Index Insurance Model for Major Grain Crops in Anhui Province
YANG Tai-ming, CAO Wen, Gao E, SUN Xi-bo, XU Ying, LIU Yuan, SHEN Guang-bin
2024, 45(05):  562-570.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2024.05.011
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Meteorological disasters are one of the major risks to agricultural production, causing huge losses to agriculture. Agricultural insurance is an important part of the agricultural security system and can effectively spread agricultural risks and losses. Weather index insurance, which emerged in the late 1990s, has received a lot of attention, research, and applications due to its objectivity, standardization, and robust liquidity. In this paper, authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of weather index insurance compared to traditional agricultural insurance. The development of weather index insurance technology at home and abroad was reviewed. Authors introduced the development and practical application of weather index insurance model for Anhui grain crops (winter wheat, one season rice, summer corn), and discussed and prospected the future development of weather index insurance.