中国农业气象

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湖南省春玉米光温生产潜力和产量差特征及限制因子分析

刘思华,李晶,黄晚华,汪天颖,李民华   

  1. 1. 湖南省气象科学研究所,长沙 410118;2. 湖南省怀化市气象局,怀化 418000
  • 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2019-01-01
  • 作者简介:刘思华,E-mail:lhczhc@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    “十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300101-05);国家自然基金(31571560);湖南省气象局面上项目(XQKJ19B056)

Characteristics and Limiting Factors of Light-temperature Potential Productivity and Yield Gap of Spring Maize in Hunan Province

LIU Si-hua, LI Jing, HUANG Wan-hua, WANG Tian-ying, LI Min-hua   

  1. 1.Hunan Meteorological Research Institute, Changsha 410118, China; 2.Meteorological Bureau in Huaihua, Hunan Province, Huaihua 418000
  • Online:2020-07-20 Published:2019-01-01

摘要: 应用逐级订正模型,按照“光、温”逐级衰减的方法,逐日计算湖南省春玉米的光合生产潜力,通过每日温度有效系数订正得到逐日光温生产潜力,并累积得到春玉米全生育期内1987-2016年光温生产潜力。计算71个春玉米主产县光温潜力产量差,即主产县实际单产与对应气象站点光温生产潜力的差值。结果表明:累积日照时数对春玉米光温生产潜力和产量差的影响有限,3月下旬日照显著增加但光温生产潜力及产量差显著下降,其区域分布集中在湘西南和湘南等地。积温对春玉米光温生产潜力和产量差的影响较广,特别是高温的限制作用,春玉米全生育期、3月下旬、6-7月积温在全省绝大部分地区均显著增加,且与光温潜力和产量差呈显著负相关。表明气候变化影响下,高温限制作用加强,湖南省春玉米光温生产潜力显著降低。目前湖南西部地区实际单产较低,光温潜力产量差较高,春玉米产量有较大提升空间。

关键词: 光温生产潜力, 产量差, 高温, 春玉米

Abstract: The stepwise correcting model was applied to calculate the light and temperature potentials of spring maize in Hunan Province from 1987 to 2016. Firstly, the daily light potential productivity was calculated, then the daily light-temperature potential productivity was obtained by correcting it using daily temperature effective coefficient. Finally, the daily values were accumulated to get the yearly light-temperature potential productivity. And the yield gap between actual yield and light-temperature potential productivity was calculated in the 71 major counties. The results showed that the effects of sunshine hours on light-temperature potential productivity and yield gap was limited. In the last ten-day of March, there were significantly negative correlations between accumulated sunshine hours and light-temperature potential productivities, yield gap, and the areas mainly distributed in Southwest and South Hunan. However, the accumulated temperature had wide effects on light-temperature potential productivity and yield gap, especially the limiting effects of high temperature. In the whole growth period, the last ten-day of March, and period from June to July, there were remarkable negative correlations between accumulated temperature and light-temperature potential productivity, yield gap in most areas of the province. In conclusion, affecting by climate change, the limiting effects of high temperature was strengthened, and the light-temperature potential productivity of spring maize was significantly reduced in Hunan Province. With the highest yield gap and the highest light-temperature potential productivity in west area of Hunan, there would be a large improvement space for spring maize yield.

Key words: Light-temperature potential productivity, Yield gap, High temperature, Spring maize