中国农业气象

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 萎锈灵包衣对低温胁迫下棉种萌发特性的影响

 周小云,刘梦丽,李进,张军高,梁晶,杜鹏程,王莉,翟梦华,甘恩祥,高文伟,雷斌   

  1.  1.新疆农业科学院核技术生物技术研究所/农业部荒漠绿洲作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830091;2.新疆农业大学农学院,乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-08-19
  • 作者简介:周小云,E-mail:xiaoyunzhou77@126.com
  • 基金资助:
     国家自然科学基金“萎锈灵杀菌剂对提高新疆棉花苗期耐低温冷害能力的机制研究”(31760073)

 Effects of the Carboxin from Seed Coating Formulation on the Cotton Seed Germination Characteristics under Low Temperature Stress

 ZHOU Xiao-yun,LIU Meng-li,LI Jin,ZHANG Jun-gao,LIANG Jing,DU Peng-cheng,WANG Li,ZAI Meng-hua,GAN En-xiang,GAO Wen-wei,LEI Bin   

  1.  1.Research Institute of Nuclear Technology and Biotechnology, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Desert Oasis Ministry of Agriculture,Urumqi 830091,China; 2.College of Agronomy,Xinjiang Agricultural University,Urumqi 830052)
  • Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-08-19
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  为减轻低温胁迫对棉花种子萌发能力的影响,探索萎锈灵包衣提高棉种萌发期耐低温能力的功效。以对温度敏感的“新陆早50”棉种为实验材料,设置25℃、18℃、15℃和12℃共4个温度处理,将萎锈灵按照不同含量制成悬浮种衣剂即0(种衣剂中仅含惰性成分)、4.2%、5.7%、7.2%、8.7%和10.2%共6个梯度对棉种进行包衣处理,以光籽不包衣处理为对照,采用砂培法,观测各处理条件下的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数以及活力指数等种子萌发活性指标和干物质质量、种子干物质转化效率以及呼吸消耗量等干物质转移指标,计算低温胁迫与正常温度下相比的抗逆系数,比较不同含量萎锈灵包衣对低温胁迫下棉花种子萌发的影响。结果表明:在不包衣的情况下,正常温度下(25℃时)棉种的萌发指标最高,发芽率可达80.5%,随着温度降低棉种萌发指标均呈下降趋势,说明低温胁迫严重影响棉种的萌发;而在萎锈灵包衣的情况下,正常温度下(25℃时)棉种的萌发指标最高,发芽率可达96.0%,随着温度降低各处理棉种萌发指标均呈缓慢下降趋势,说明萎锈灵能够明显缓解低温胁迫对种子萌发的伤害。在相同温度条件下,随着种衣剂中萎锈灵含量的增加,除种子的呼吸消耗量呈先下降后上升的趋势外,种子发芽率等萌发指标以及鲜重、干物质质量、干物质转化效率指标均呈先上升后下降的趋势;萎锈灵处理较不含萎锈灵处理能使棉种萌发进程提早2~4d;低温胁迫下不含萎锈灵处理的种子活力低,棉花幼苗生长也受到抑制,幼苗鲜重显著减少,导致幼苗干物质积累也显著减少;未包衣和不含萎锈灵处理的种子平均抗逆系数仅分别为0.68和0.70,而含萎锈灵包衣的种子平均抗逆系数为0.73~0.91。研究表明萎锈灵能增强棉花种子活力,进而提早萌发进程,提高发芽率,促进幼苗生长,从而增强棉花萌发期的耐低温能力。

关键词:  , 萎锈灵, 发芽率, 发芽指数, 活力指数, 抗逆系数, 干物质转化效率, 棉花, 种子萌发, 低温胁迫

Abstract:  Xinjiang, as the largest cotton producing?area in China, often suffer from low temperature meteorological disasters such as “late spring cold” in cultivation, which leads to different degrees of rotten seeds, rotten buds and dead seedlings every year, resulting in “difficult emergence and seedling protection”, affecting cotton growth and development and yield and quality formation. With the development of seed coating technology, the above problems of “difficult emergence and seedling protection” in cotton field in normal years have been effectively solved by coating cotton seeds with seed coating formulation. However, it is still difficult to ensure a high rate of seedling conservation in the field in the year with serious low temperature damage, so it is urgent to study new technologies and products to improve the low temperature tolerance of cotton seedling. In addition, carboxin is a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide, which has the function of internal absorption and conduction in the plant. Its mechanism is mainly to inhibit the activity of succinate dehydrogenase of pathogenic bacteria, result to interfere with its respiration, hinder energy metabolism, inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and cause its death, so as to achieve the purpose of disease control. Recent studies have shown that the treatment with carboxin coating plays a major role in control on cotton seedling damping-off?disease, and can promote the growth of cotton, and can also enhance the ability of the field cotton seedlings to tolerante cold stress. But, it is not clear about the effect of carboxin on the germination of cotton seeds, especially the effect of carboxin on the germination characteristics of cotton seeds under low temperature stress. Therefore, in order to reduce the influence of low temperature stress on the germination ability of cotton seeds, the effects of the carboxin from seed coating formulation on the cotton seed germination characteristics under low temperature stress was explored. In this study, ‘Xinluzao 50’ cotton seeds coated with six gradients of carboxin, which were 0 (inert component only), 4.2%, 5.7%, 7.2%, 8.7% and 10.2%, were sown in plastic boxes with sand and were exposed to four temperature treatments at 25℃, 18℃, 15℃ and 12℃.The uncoated cotton seeds exposed to the same temperature treatments served as the control group (CK). Sand?culture?was?adopted?to?study?the effect of carboxin on the germination and dry matter transfer of cotton seeds under low temperature stress to explore the effect of carboxin on improving the cold resistance of cotton. The results showed that the germination index of cotton seed uncoated was the highest under normal temperature (25℃), and the germination rate was 80.5%. The germination index of cotton seed uncoated decreased with the decrease of temperature, which indicated that the germination index of cotton seed was seriously affected by low temperature stress, while the germination index of cotton seed coated with carboxin was the highest under normal temperature (25℃), and the germination rate was 96.0%. With the decrease of temperature, the germination indices of all treatments with coating with carboxin decreased slowly, which indicated that carboxin could obviously alleviate the damage of low temperature stress on seed germination.Under the same temperature, with the increase of the content of carboxin in seed coating agent, the other indices increased first and then decreased, except the respiratory consumption of seeds decreased first and then increased. The germination process of cotton seeds coating with carboxin was 2?4 days earlier than that in the treatment of seed uncoated and seed coating without carboxin; the seed vigor and growth of the treatment without carboxin was lower, and the fresh weight was significantly reduced, resulting in the dry matter accumulation was also significantly reduced; the average adversity resistance coefficient of the treatment uncoated cotton seeds and without carboxin coated cotton seeds was only 0.68 and 0.70, respectively, while that of the treatment with carboxin was 0.73?0.91. Our results showed that carboxin could enhance the seed vigor, advance the germination process, increase the germination rate and promote the growth of seedlings, and enhance the ability of seedlings to resist damage from the low-temperature climate during the germination period of cotton.

Key words:  Carboxin, Germination rate, Germination index, Vigor index, Adversity resistance coefficient, Dry matter conversion efficiency, Cotton, Seed germination, Low temperature stress.

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