中国农业气象

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近57年甘孜州气候干湿状况的时空演变

王庆莉,韩玉江,郭斌,王明田,冉王群,陈娟   

  1. 1.四川省甘孜州气象局,康定 626000;2.四川省阿坝州气象局,马尔康 624000;3.四川省气象台,成都610072;4.南方丘区节水农业研究四川省重点实验室,成都 610066
  • 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-07-08
  • 作者简介:王庆莉(1974-),高级工程师,从事农业气象服务和研究。E-mail:scwql3028@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0504903);高原与盆地暴雨旱涝灾害四川省重点实验室科技发展基金项目(省重实验室2018-重点-05-10)

Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Climate Dry and Wet Conditions in Ganzi in the Past 57 Years

WANG Qing-li, HAN Yu-jiang, GUO Bin, WANG Ming-tian, RAN Wang-qun, CHEN Juan   

  1. 1.Meteorological Bureau of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Kangding 626000,China; 2.Meteorological Bureau of Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Maerkang 624000;3.Sichuan Meteorological Observatory, Chengdu 610072; 4.Sichuan Key Laboratory of Water-saving Agriculture Research in Southern Hill Areas, Chengdu 6l0066
  • Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-07-08

摘要: 基于甘孜藏族自治州18个国家气象站1961-2017年实测资料,采用《生态质量气象评价规范》中的方法计算甘孜州及其所属县(市)月、季、年湿润指数,分析气候干湿时空演变特征,为防旱减灾、合理利用气候资源提供科学依据。结果显示:(1)甘孜州近57a年平均湿润指数在0.67~1.33,以1965年最高,1973年最低;季平均湿润指数在0.07~1.86,以夏季最高,秋季次之,冬季最低;月平均湿润指数在0.05~2.17,以9月最高,12月最低;湿润指数大小在年际间、季节间和月份间差异很大。(2)州内各县(市)平均湿润指数在0.23~1.73,地区间差异大,其中东南部和北部相对湿润,西南部相对干燥。(3)甘孜州年降水量的气候倾向率为13.4mm·10a-1,湿润指数的气候倾向率为-0.003·10a-1,气候呈微弱的“暖干化”趋势,主要原因是气候变暖导致潜在蒸散显著增加。(4)甘孜州2/3的县(市)平均湿润指数小于1,季节性干旱特征显著,生态环境脆弱,生产中应遵循开发利用与建设保护并举原则,强化防旱减灾、农田水利建设和生态修复等工作。

关键词: 甘孜州, 湿润指数, 时空演变

Abstract: Based on measured data from 1961 to 2017 in 18 national weather stations in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, the monthly, seasonal and annual wetness index for Ganzi and its affiliated counties were counted according to the method described in Ecological quality Assessment Criteria of Meteorology.The spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of climate dry and wet were also analyzed in this study, which will provide scientific basis for drought prevention and mitigation and rational utilization of climate resources. The results showed: (1) the average wetness index of Ganzi in the past 57 years was between 0.67?1.33, the highest value was in 1965, and the lowest was in 1973. The seasonal average wetness index was between 0.07?1.86, the highest value occurred in summer, the second highest value occurred in autumn, and the lowest value occurred in winter; (2) The average wetness index of counties (cities) in Ganzi was between 0.23 and 1.73, which presented a large difference between the various regions.It seemed that the southeast and north was relatively humid and the southwest was relatively dry; (3) The annual climate change rate in Ganzi was 13.4mm·10y-1, the climatic tendency rate of the wetness index was -0.003·10y-1, and the climate tends to be weakly warm and dry. (4) The average wetness index of 2/3 counties (cities) in Ganzi was less than 1, which indicated that the seasonal drought characteristics was significant, and the ecological environment was fragile. Production practices should follow the principle of the combination of exploitation and protection. The drought prevention and mitigation, farmland water conservancy construction, and ecological restoration also should be strengthened during the production process.

Key words: Ganzi, Wetness index, Temporal and spatial evolution