中国农业气象

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生物炭和秸秆对华北农田表层土壤矿质氮和pH值的影响

张星,刘杏认,林国林,张晴雯,张庆忠,王琴   

  1. 1. 沈阳农业大学土地与环境学院,沈阳 110866;2. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部农业环境重点实验室,北京 100081;3. 环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心,北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-25 出版日期:2016-04-20 发布日期:2016-04-18
  • 作者简介:张星(1989-),硕士生,主要从事农田生态系统氮素循环研究。E-mail:13241321965@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(31300375);中央公益型科研院所基本科研业务费专项(BSRF201505);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2015ZX07203-007)

Effects of Biochar and Straw Return on Mineral Nitrogen and pH of the Surface Soil in Farmland of the North China Plain

ZHANG Xing, LIU Xing-ren, LIN Guo-lin, ZHANG Qing-wen, ZHANG Qing-zhong,WANG Qin   

  1. 1.College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China; 2.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081; 3.Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, MEP, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2015-11-25 Online:2016-04-20 Published:2016-04-18

摘要:

基于2014-2015年华北农田定位试验,设CK(单施氮磷钾肥)、C1(生物炭4.5t×hm-2×a-1+氮磷钾肥)、C2(生物炭9.0t×hm-2×a-1+氮磷钾肥)和SR(秸秆还田+氮磷钾肥)4个处理,对施用生物炭和秸秆还田对表层土壤矿质氮(NO3--NNH4+-N)含量以及土壤pH值的影响进行研究。结果表明,不同处理土壤矿质氮的动态变化趋势基本一致,施用生物炭和秸秆还田均可显著提高土壤NO3--N含量(P<0.05),但对土壤NH4+-N含量影响不大。与秸秆还田相比,高量施用生物炭有利于增加土壤NO3--N含量。各处理土壤中矿质氮主要以NO3--N为主,NH4+-N含量均保持在一个较低水平。将冬小麦整个生育期内各处理土壤NO3--NNH4+-N含量与夏玉米的相比,前者显著高于后者。在整个冬小麦-玉米轮作周期内,高量施用生物炭显著提高了土壤pH值,且各处理土壤NO3--N与土壤pH值呈显著负相关(P<0.05),土壤NH4+-N含量与土壤pH值相关性不显著;而各处理土壤NO3--NNH4+-N含量与土壤含水量均呈显著正相关(P<0.05)。可见,添加生物炭对减少氮素的转化和流失具有较大潜力。

关键词: 生物炭, 秸秆还田, 矿化, 硝化, pH

Abstract:

Based on the location experiment, which consisted of four treatments (CK, C1, C2, SR) with three replications: CK (single NPK fertilizer), C1 (biochar 4.5t·ha-1·y-1+NPK fertilizer) and C2 (biochar 9.0t·ha-1·y-1 + NPK fertilizer) and SR (straw return + NPK fertilizer). The effects of biochar and straw return on mineral nitrogen (N) and pH of the surface soil in farmland of the North China Plain in 2014 and 2015 were studied. Results showed that the dynamic trend of soil mineral N content (NO3--N, NH4+-N) were similar. Application of biochar and straw return significantly increased soil NO3--N (P<0.05). However, there were no significant effects on soil NH4+-N. Compared with SR treatment, C2 treatment was more helpful to increase soil NO3--N. The mineral N in the soil was dominated by NO3--N, and NH4+-N was kept at a low level. The contents of soil mineral N in the whole growth period of winter wheat was higher than in that of summer maize. Biochar significantly increased soil pH(P<0.05), and soil NO3--N was negatively correlated with soil pH(P<0.05), and soil NH4+-N was not correlated with soil pH. But soil NO3--N and NH4+-N were positively correlated with soil moisture content in each treatment(P<0.05). In short, adding biochar had greater potential in slowing N transformation, reducing N mobility and so on. The results can be used a scientific reference on improving soil quality and reducing soil N loss in farmland.

Key words: Biochar, Straw return, Mineralization, Nitrification, pH