中国农业气象

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农田土壤硝化反硝化作用及其对生物炭添加响应的研究进展

赵光昕,张晴雯,刘杏认,田秀平   

  1. 1. 天津农学院农学与资源环境学院,天津 300384;2. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081
  • 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-07-17
  • 作者简介:赵光昕(1991?),硕士生,主要研究方向为农业生态系统碳氮循环。E-mail:zgxzhao@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2015ZX07203-007);国家自然科学基金项目(41773090;31300375)

Nitrification and Denitrification and its Response to Biochar Addition in Agricultural Soil:A Review

ZHAO Guang-xin, ZHANG Qing-wen, LIU Xing-ren, TIAN Xiu-ping   

  1. 1. College of Agronomy and Resource Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China; 2. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agricultural, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
  • Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-07-17

摘要: 氧化亚氮(N2O)是重要的温室气体之一,还会破坏大气臭氧层,影响全球气候变化。农田土壤是N2O最主要的排放源,由微生物主导的硝化和反硝化作用是其最主要的排放途径,因此,土壤的硝化和反硝化作用备受关注。在综合国内外相关研究的基础上,就区分硝化和反硝化作用对N2O排放贡献的研究方法、土壤N2O产生途径及其影响因素以及施用生物炭对N2O排放的影响机理进行归纳总结。结果表明:硝化和反硝化作用对生物炭的响应不同,在N2O减排效应上也存在很大的不确定性,其内在机理尚不明确。在此基础上,提出区分硝化和反硝化作用对N2O排放贡献的最佳研究方法,并就农田土壤硝化反硝化作用的影响因素以及对生物炭的响应机制进行研究展望。

关键词: 氧化亚氮, 硝化抑制剂, 土壤微生物, 功能基因

Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, and agriculture soils are the main emission sources. Nitrification and denitrification, which are dominated by microbes, are the most important emission pathways. Therefore, the soil nitrification and denitrification have been paid much attention by scientists. Based on a large quantity of literatures, this paper summarizes the methods of distinguishing the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emission, soil N2O production pathway and its influencing factors, and mechanism of the effects of biochar on N2O emission. The results showed that the response of nitrification and denitrification to biochar was different, and there was still a lot of uncertainty in the effect of biochar on N2O emission reduction. The underlying mechanism was not yet clear. As such, this paper proposed the best research method to distinguish the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O emission. Finally, the research prospect of the influencing factors of nitrification and denitrification and the response mechanism of biochar in farmland soil were also proposed.

Key words: Nitrous oxide, Nitrification inhibitor, Soil microbe, Functional gene