中国农业气象

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花期夜温升高对水稻颖花开放及籽粒结实的影响

张文倩,王亚梁,朱德峰,陈惠哲,向镜,张义凯,张玉屏   

  1. 中国水稻研究所/水稻生物学国家重点实验室,杭州 310006
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-13 出版日期:2019-03-20 发布日期:2019-03-16
  • 作者简介:张文倩(1993-),女,硕士,主要从事作物逆境生理研究。E-mail:1159302916@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发专项(2017YFD0300409;2016YFD0200801);现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-01-22)

Effect of Increasing Night Temperature on Floret Opening and Grain Setting of Rice

ZHANG Wen-qian, WANG Ya-liang, ZHU De-feng, CHEN Hui-zhe, XIANG Jing, ZHANG Yi-kai, ZHANG Yu-ping   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology/Rice Research Institute of China, Hangzhou 310006, China
  • Received:2018-09-13 Online:2019-03-20 Published:2019-03-16

摘要: 利用盆栽常规籼稻黄华占(HHZ)和黄丝占(HSZ),将人工气候箱设置3种昼/夜温度处理,以36℃/25℃(T1)、36℃/29℃(T2)和36℃/33℃(T3),分别代表日最高温升高4℃情况下夜温升高4℃和8℃的情景,以32℃/25℃(CK)为对照。从抽穗扬花当天开始,连续处理7d,每日9:00?11:00逐小时观测开花数、花粉活力以及花药开裂率,处理结束后移至室外,成熟后观测结实率。结果表明:(1)在日温升高条件下,花期夜温升高使水稻每日的开花高峰期提前1h,两个品种表现一致;(2)在日温升高条件下,花期夜温升高导致水稻花粉活力逐渐下降。夜温升高4℃(T2)和8℃(T3)时,黄华占的花粉活力分别下降 13.6和17.6个百分点,黄丝占的花粉活力分别下降1.1和4.5个百分点,说明黄华占花粉活力对夜温升高较黄丝占更敏感;(3)在日温升高条件下,花期夜温升高使水稻花药开裂率显著降低(P<0.05),处理时间越长影响越大,在T3处理下,黄华占平均花药开裂率为73.2%,黄丝占为79.0%;(4)夜温升高导致水稻结实率下降,黄华占与黄丝占表现趋势一致,黄华占对夜温升高更为敏感。结实率下降的主要原因为花药开裂率与花粉活力的降低。

关键词: 水稻, 花期, 夜温, 结实率, 花器官

Abstract: Taking indica rice varieties HHZ and HSZ as potting experimental materials, three day/night temperature treatments, namely 36℃/25℃ (T1), 36 ℃/29℃ (T2) and 36℃/33℃ (T3), were set up in artificial climate chamber, which means the daily maximum increasing temperature by 4℃ and the increasing temperature at night by 4℃ and 8℃, respectively, and 32℃/25℃ as CK. Continuous processing for 7 days from the day of heading and flowering, the flowering number, pollen vigor and anther dehiscence rate were observed hourly from 9:00 am to 11:00 am. After treatment, they were moved to the outside and were observed the fruiting rate after ripening. The results showed that, under the condition of increasing daily temperature, the increase night temperature at flowering stage put forward one hour in the flowering peak both for two varieties. Meanwhile, the increase night temperature at flowering stage caused the vitality of pollen, when night temperature increased by 4℃ (T2) and 8℃ (T3), the HHZ vitality of pollen dropped by 13.6 and 17.6 percentage point, HSZ dropped by 1.1 and 4.5 percentage point, which means the pollen vigor of HHZ was more sensitive to the increase night temperature than HSZ. Under the same conditions, the anther cracking rate of rice decreased significantly with the increasing night temperature at flowering stage (P < 0.05), the longer treatment, the greater the effect. The average rate of anther cracking was 73.2% in HHZ and 79.0% in HSZ with treatment T3. The increasing night temperature also caused the decreasing rice seed setting rate, both HHZ and HSZ showed the same tendency, but HHZ was more sensitive to the increasing night temperature than HSZ. The decreasing seed setting rate was mainly due to the decreasing anther dehiscence rate and pollen vigor.

Key words: Rice, Flowering stage, Night temperature, Seed setting rate, Floral organ