中国农业气象

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冬春季低温高湿条件易引发贵州红心猕猴桃溃疡病

池再香,蒋仕华,白慧,李贵琼,孙翔,王备,龙先菊,胡秋舲   

  1. 1.贵州省六盘水市气象局,六盘水 553001;2.贵州省山地环境气候研究所,贵阳 550001;3.贵州省盘州市气象局,盘州 553537;4.贵州省黔东南州气象局,凯里 556000;5.贵州省六盘水市植检植保站,六盘水 553001
  • 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-20
  • 作者简介:池再香(1964?),学士,正研级高工,主要从事农业气象服务及科研。E-mail:qxxf_850@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科协创新驱动助力工程(2017ZLGC004);贵州省市科技合作项目(52020-2015-01-02);贵州省科技计划项目[黔科合NY字(2012)3020号

Conditions of Low Temperature and High Humidity in Winter and Spring Easily Lead to Red Cartridge Kiwifruit Canker Disease in Guizhou

CHI Zai-xiang, JIANG Shi-hua, BAI Hui, LI Gui-qiong, SUN Xiang, WANG Bei, LONG Xian-ju, HU Qiu-ling   

  1. 1.Liupanshui Meteorological Bureau, Liupanshui 553001, China; 2. Guizhou Institute of Mountainous Environment and Climate, Guiyang 550001; 3.Panzhou Meteorological Bureau, Panzhou 553537; 4. Southeast Guizhou Meteorological Bureau, Kaili 556000; 5. Liupanshui Phytosanitary Plant Protection Stations, Liupanshui 553001
  • Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-20

摘要: 以红心猕猴桃品种“红阳”为试验材料,2013?2018年每年3?4月在贵州红心猕猴桃主要种植区15个基地对溃疡病进行监测,并统计各基地同期气象要素,采用叠加方法和剔除方法,分析冬季-翌年春季低温高湿的具体指标及其持续时间,结合溃疡病发生地、发生时间及发病率,探讨溃疡病与低温高湿及其持续时间的定量关系,确定红心猕猴桃溃疡病发生的冬季-翌年春季低温高湿及持续时间指标阈值。结果表明:贵州红心猕猴桃溃疡病发生、流行的主要时期为3月。在冬季,连续5d及以上日平均气温≤2℃、日最低气温≤-2℃、日平均相对湿度≥75%的低温高湿气象条件,有利于溃疡病病菌在树体内生存。在春季,连续5d及以上日平均气温≤18℃、日平均相对湿度≥80%的低温高湿气象条件易诱发溃疡病发生、流行。利用未发生溃疡病的猴场等11个基地2013-2018年每年12月-翌年4月气象要素对上述低温高湿条件进行验证,结果表明,猴场等11个基地冬-春季的温、湿条件均不能满足溃疡病所需的低温高湿气象条件。建议以此低温高湿气象条件作为红心猕猴桃溃疡病防御的预警指标,积极组织预防,以提高防治效果。

关键词: 低温, 高湿, 溃疡病, 红心猕猴桃, 贵州

Abstract: The red cartridge kiwifruit variety “Hongyang” was used as experiment materials to monitor canker disease of red cartridge kiwifruit and measure meteorological elements at 15 sites in major growing areas at the same time from March to April during 2013 to 2018. The superposition and elimination method was used to analyze the duration of the specific index values of low temperature and high humidity at the canker disease bases in winter and spring, and combine with the locations, the time and the incidence, discussing the quantitative relationship between the duration of low temperature-high humidity and canker disease and determining the threshold value in winter and spring. The results showed that the main period of the canker occurrence and prevalence of red cartridge kiwifruit was March. The weather conditions of the daily average temperature is under 2℃, the daily minimum temperature is under -2℃ and the daily average relative humidity is above 75% were continued for 5 days in winter the daily average temperature is under 18℃ and the daily average relative humidity is above 80% were continued for 5 days in spring, which could help canker bacteria easily survive in trees and induce canker disease. Then utilizing the meteorological elements to verify the weather conditions of low temperature and high humidity at the 11 sites, where canker disease not occurring. The results showed that the meteorological elements could not be achieved the required weather conditions of low temperature and high humidity at the 11 sites. These were suggested that the above weather condition could be adopted as the pre-warning index of the canker disease of red cartridge kiwifruit. Besides, there were steps that we could actively organizing prevention for increasing the control effect.

Key words: Low temperature, High humidity, Canker disease, Red cartridge kiwifruit, Guizhou