中国农业气象

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拔节期干旱胁迫下冬小麦品种间产量及生理响应的差异

封富,黄桂荣,王雅静,张欣莹,王涛,钟秀丽   

  1. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部旱作节水农业重点实验室,北京 100081
  • 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2020-01-20
  • 作者简介:封富,E-mail:82101176076@caas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家十三五重点研发计划课题“化肥减施增效共性技术与评价研究”(2017YFD0201702)

Cultivar Differences in Yield and Physiological Response of Winter Wheat after Exposed to Drought Stress at Jointing Stage

FENG Fu, HUANG Gui-rong, WANG Ya-jing, ZHANG Xin-ying, WANG Tao, ZHONG Xiu-li   

  1. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
  • Online:2020-01-20 Published:2020-01-20

摘要: 拔节期干旱是影响冬小麦产量的重要灾害,揭示不同品种对干旱胁迫生理响应的差异,可为鉴选与培育抗旱品种提供指导。选取黄淮海平原不同冬麦区种植面积较大的晋麦47、洛旱2号、石家庄8号、豫麦18和郑麦9023共5个品种和1个抗逆性较弱的品种偃麦20,利用防雨棚开展盆栽试验研究。从籽粒产量以及气孔特性、膜稳定性和渗透调节特性等方面,分析拔节期受水分胁迫后,各品种抗旱性和干旱胁迫响应途径的差异。结果表明:(1)灌溉条件下,晋麦47、洛旱2号和石家庄8号产量较高,豫麦18和偃麦20产量较低。拔节期受干旱胁迫后,晋麦47、洛旱2号和豫麦18产量较高,石家庄8号和偃麦20产量较低。可见,以籽粒产量为抗旱性评价的核心指标,晋麦47、洛旱2号和豫麦18抗旱性较强,石家庄8号和偃麦20抗旱性较弱,郑麦9023抗旱性居中。(2)3个抗旱品种间干旱胁迫响应途径并不一致。与抗旱性较弱的石家庄8号和偃麦20相比,拔节期干旱胁迫下,豫麦18气孔导度较低,气孔调节能力强;洛旱2号细胞渗透势较低,渗透调节能力较强;洛旱2号膜离子渗漏率较低,膜稳定性较强;晋麦47在气孔调节、渗透调节和膜稳定性调节方面与抗旱性较弱的品种无显著差异。研究结果说明,冬小麦品种间响应干旱胁迫的关键途径存在差异。因而品种的抗旱性难以通过单一生理指标科学评价,需要多指标联合鉴定。

关键词: 冬小麦, 产量, 抗旱性, 气孔调节, 渗透调节, 膜稳定性调节

Abstract: Drought stress occurring at jointing stage has been restricted winter wheat production severely. This study explored the genotypic difference in physiological response to drought, aiming at providing informative guidance for selection and breeding of drought tolerant cultivars. Five cultivars, which were planted in larger areas in different regions of the North China Plain, and one stress sensitive cultivar were selected as materials. Pot cultivation and rain-shelter were adopted to carry out the experiment. In terms of grain yield, as well as stomatal traits, cellular membrane stability, and osmoregulation traits, genotypic difference in drought tolerance along with the drought response pathways after suffering drought stress at jointing stage were compared and analyzed. Under well-watered condition, winter wheat cultivars Jinmai 47, Luohan 2, and Shijiazhuang yielded higher, while Yuami 18 and Yanmai 20 yielded lower, with Zhengmai 9023 moderately yielding. Encountering drought stress at jointing stage, Jinmai 47, Luohan 2, and Yumai 18 yielded higher, in comparison, Shijiazhuang 8 and Yanmai 20 yielded lower, with Zhengmai 9023 moderately yielding. Being evaluated drought tolerance in term of yield after suffering from drought stress, Jinmai 47, Luohan 2, and Yumai 18 were cultivars of higher drought tolerance, while Shijiazhuang 8 and Yanmai 20, lower drought tolerance, and Zhengmai 9023, moderate drought tolerance. The 3 drought tolerant cultivars markedly differed in the key pathways of physiological responses to drought stress. Compared with lower drought tolerant cultivars, Shijiazhuang 8 and Yanmai 20, after exposed to drought stress at jointing stage, Yumai 18 showed significantly lower stomatal conductance, indicating its higher stomatal regulation ability; Luohan 2 had lower cellular osmotic potential, indicating its higher osmotic adjustment capability; Luohan 2 also had lower membrane ion leakage, showing stronger membrane stability; Jinmai 47 showed no significant difference from the lower drought tolerant cultivars in stomatal regulation, osmotic adjustment, and membrane stability. The significant difference among cultivars in the critical pathways of physiological response to drought stress suggested that drought tolerance of wheat cultivars can not be scientifically evaluated through sole physiological index, but through multiple indices.

Key words: Winter wheat, Yield, Drought tolerance, Stomatal regulation, Cellular osmotic adjustment, Membrane stability