中国农业气象

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 四川乡城松茸气候生态适宜性及潜在分布

 王庆莉,韩玉江,张利平,罗仁斌,杨伟明,王明田,高刚,王严琪   

  1.  1.四川省甘孜州气象局,康定 626000;2.四川省达州市气象局,达州 635000;3.四川省乡城县气象局,乡城627850;4.四川省气象台,成都 610072;5.南方丘区节水农业研究四川省重点实验室,成都 610066
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-25 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-06-18
  • 作者简介:王庆莉,E-mail:scwql3028@163.com
  • 基金资助:
     高原与盆地暴雨旱涝灾害四川省重点实验室科技发展基金项目(省重实验室2018-重点-05-05; SCQXKJQN2020016)

 Ecological Climate Suitability and PotentialDistribution for Tricholoma matsutakin Xiangcheng County, Sichuan Province

 WANG Qing-li,HAN Yu-jiang,ZHANG Li-ping,LUO Ren-bin,YANG Wei-ming,WANG Ming-tian,GAO Gang, WANG Yan-qi   

  1.  1.Meteorological Bureau of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Kangding626000,China; 2.Dazhou Meteorological Bureau, Dazhou635000;3.Xiangcheng Meteorological Bureau, Xiangcheng627850; 4.Sichuan Meteorological Observatory, Chengdu 610072; 5.Sichuan Key Laboratory of Water-Saving Agriculture Research in Southern Hill Areas, Chengdu 6l0066
  • Received:2019-10-25 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-06-18
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  松茸是一种珍贵的食药用野生菌,营养丰富。乡城县是松茸的主产区之一,但由于地广人稀,地形地貌复杂,前人的研究方法多数是典型区域的实地调查,因此其空间分布不是很清楚。本文基于前人的研究成果和实地调查,归纳凝练出乡城县松茸生长发育的海拔、气温、降水量、植被和地形坡度适宜性区划指标,应用地理信息系统(GIS)空间分析方法分析乡城松茸的气候生态条件和潜在产区分布。结果表明:(1)乡城县12个乡镇均出产松茸,但受地形和气候影响,分布区随山脉走向呈带状、枝状特征,白依、热打、定波、正斗、沙贡为乡城县松茸的主产区。(2)适宜区海拔3000-3900m,4-10月平均气温10.0~14.5℃,期间降水量500~800mm,植被为中高盖度的高山栎、松林或松栎混交,坡度25°-35°;次适宜区海拔2800-3000m或3900-4200m,4-10月平均气温7.5~10.0℃或14.5~16.0℃,降水量400~500mm或800mm以上,植被为低覆盖度的高山栎、松林或松栎混交,坡度15°-25°或35-45°;不适宜区为草甸或无植被地段;适宜区占全县总面积的19%,次适宜区占全县总面积的16%,不适宜区占全县总面积的65%。(3)出菇最适宜的气象条件为7月下旬-9月中旬多昼晴夜雨天气,期间平均气温16℃左右,总降水量260mm左右,相对湿度>70%,总日照时数228~255h。(4)92%的乡镇区划结果与实况一致或基本一致,说明区划指标总体合理,研究结论对松茸采摘、贸易和资源保护具有重要指导意义。

关键词:  松茸, GIS, 生态适宜性, 潜在分布

Abstract:  Tricholoma matsutak is a precious?edible and medicinalwild fungus withrich nutrition. Xiangcheng county is one of the main producing areas of T. matsutake, but its spatial distribution was not very clear for the vast area, sparse population, complex topography and most of the previous research methods were field surveys of typical areas. Based on the previous research results and field investigation, this paper summarized the suitability regionalization indices of the growth of T. matsutake in Xiangcheng county, such as altitude, temperature, precipitation, vegetation and terrain slope. Then, the climate ecological suitability and potential distribution of T. matsutake in this county were analyzed by using the spatial analysis method of Geographical Information System(GIS).The results showed that:(1)T. matsutake grows in 12 villages and towns,but its distribution areasare band-shaped and branch-like alongthe mountain range direction under the influence of the terrain and climate. The main producing areas are Baiyi, Reda, Dingbo, Zhengdou and Shagong in thecounty. (2)The altitude of the suitable area is from 3000 to 3900 meters above sea level, the average temperature is between 10.0and 14.5°C, and the precipitation ranges is 500-800mmfrom April to October. T.matsutake likes to grow in alpine oak forest, pine forest or mixed forest with medium and high coverage, and the slope of these forests should be 25°-35°. In the sub suitable area, the altitude is 2800-3000m or 3900-4200m, the average temperature is 7.5-10.0℃ or 14.5-16.0℃, the precipitation is 400-500mm or more than 800mm from April to October, and the vegetation is alpine oak forest, pine forest or mixed forest with low coverage, the slope of these forests should be 15°-25° or 35°-45°. Meadows or no vegetation areas are the unsuitable areas for T.matsutake.The suitable area accounts for 19% of the total area of the county, the sub suitable area accounts for 16% of the total area of the county, and the unsuitable area accounts for 65% of the total area of the county.(3)The most suitable weather condition for mushroom growing is sunny day and rainy night from late July to mid September. During this period, the average temperature is about 16℃, the total precipitation is about 260mm, the relative humidity is more than 70%, and the total sunshine hours are 228-255h.(4)The verificationresults showed that 92% of the villages and towns were consistent or basically consistent with the actual situation, which showed that the indicators of the zoning were reasonable. The conclusion of this study is of great significance to the picking, trade and resource protection of T. matsutake.

Key words:  Tricholoma matsutak, GIS, Ecological suitability, Potential distribution

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