中国农业气象

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 猪场沼渣与玉米芯混合槽式堆肥氨气排放特征

 余鑫,郑云昊,朱志平,张羽,曹起涛   

  1.  中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业农村部设施农业节能与废弃物处理重点实验室,北京100081
  • 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-03-20
  • 作者简介:余鑫,E-mail:1639246864@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
     大气重污染成因与治理攻关项目 (DQGG-02-08-03); 养殖业全链条固铵减排关键技术(2018YFC0213300)

 Characteristics of Ammonia Emissions from Trough Composting of Swine Manure Biogas Residue and Corn Cob

 YU Xin, ZHENG Yun-hao, ZHU Zhi-ping, ZHANG Yu, CAO Qi-tao   

  1.  Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation and Waste Management of Agricultural Structures, MARA, Beijing 100081, China
  • Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-03-20
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  堆肥既是粪便资源化利用处理的主要方式之一,也是重要的农业氨气排放源。针对猪粪沼渣堆肥的现场研究较少,实际生产过程中氨气排放数据缺乏,排放特征不明确的问题,开展了猪粪沼渣与玉米芯混合堆肥氨气排放特征的现场试验研究。本研究在实际槽式堆肥车间构建实时在线气体监测系统,对生猪养殖场沼渣槽式好氧堆肥车间氨气浓度变化进行连续监测,测算堆体氨气排放通量,分析氨气排放特征。结果显示:堆肥38d内槽式好氧堆肥车间氨气浓度变化范围为0.85~22.40mgm-3,平均3.63mgm-3。由于翻堆对氨气扩散的促进作用,白天堆肥氨气浓度高于夜间,12:00-16:00氨气排放浓度最高(6.77±4.37mgm-3),其次为16:00-20:00(4.26±2.07mgm-3)和8:00-12:00(3.62±1.46mgm-3);堆肥车间单位体积堆肥原料的氨气排放通量为50.25~196.59mg·m-3·h-1,平均103.99mg·m-3·h-1,整个38d堆肥过程的氨气排放量为94.84gm-3。研究结果将为猪粪堆肥过程氨气的控制及减排措施的制定提供科学依据。

关键词:  槽式堆肥, 氨气排放, 猪粪, 沼渣

Abstract:  Composting is a promising way of animal manure treatment and a major source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. However, such studies related to swine manure biogas residue were few and the NH3 emissions data from the field processing were still lacked. To fill this research gap, NH3 emissions from an industrial trough composting system treating swine manure biogas residue and corn cob were investigated in this study. A real-time online gas monitoring system was established to continuously monitor the changes of NH3 concentrations in the plant, calculate the NH3 emission flux and analyze the characteristics of NH3 emissions. Results showed that NH3 concentrations in the composting plant during a composting period (38 days) ranged from 0.85 to 22.40mgm-3, with a mean value of 3.63±1.34mgm-3. The NH3 concentration in the first two weeks(4.70±3.64mg·m-3) was significantly higher than that in the last two weeks(3.00±1.49mg·m-3), and the concentration was higher than the limit value of the emission standard for odor pollutants in most time. Due to the impact of ambient temperature and compost turning, the NH3 concentrations in the daytime were higher than that in the nighttime, with the highest mean value of 6.77±4.37mgm-3 during time of 12:00-16:00, followed by 4.26±2.07mgm-3 during 16:00-20:00, and 3.62±1.46mgm-3 during 8:00-12:00. In this plant, NH3 emission flux per volume unit of compost was 50.25 to 103.99mg·m-3·h-1, with an mean value of 103.99±37.93mg·m-3·h-1. During the whole composting process, the NH3 emission per unit of compost was 94.84gm-3. The conclusions indicate that the NH3 concentrations in the composting plant are primarily impacted by the raw materials and the ventilation and management system. It is suggested to choose appropriate emission reduction measures based on the NH3 concentrations and operational parameters in the actual production process. Results of this study can provide scientific support for the control of NH3 emissions during swine manure composting.

Key words:  Trough composting, Ammonia emission, Swine manure, Biogas residue

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