中国农业气象

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一种生物矿质复合材料对猪粪堆肥品质的影响

唐哲仁,李红娜,黄亚丽,阿旺次仁,黄桂荣,张丽,彭怀丽,李斌绪,朱昌雄   

  1. 1.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;2.河北省科学院生物研究所,石家庄 050081
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-23 出版日期:2017-06-20 发布日期:2017-06-17
  • 作者简介:唐哲仁(1991—),硕士生,主要从事环境修复与废弃物资源化利用研究。E-mail:tangzheren1991@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    南淝河流域农村有机废弃物及农田养分流失污染控制技术研究与示范(2013ZX07103-006);沙颍河中下游农业面源污染控制与水质改善集成技术研究与综合示范(2015ZX07204-007)

Effects of A Bio-mineral Composite Material on Composting Quality of Pig Manure

TANG Zhe-ren, LI Hong-na, HUANG Ya-li, AWANGCIREN, HUANG Gui-rong, ZHANG Li, PENG Huai-li, LI Bin-xu, ZHU Chang-xiong   

  1. 1. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS, Beijing 100081,China; 2. Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050081
  • Received:2016-12-23 Online:2017-06-20 Published:2017-06-17

摘要: QE制剂是一种含有微生物和矿物质的新型复合材料。为研究该材料对畜禽粪便高温堆肥进程及品质的影响,设置无添加剂(CK)、添加常规微生物菌剂(BJ)、添加QE制剂(QE)共3组处理,并以猪粪为原料,立式密闭发酵塔(容量50t)为反应装置,进行了为期7d的堆肥实验。结果表明:QE组堆温于第3天达到最大值72.7℃,比CK、BJ组分别提前2d、5d,且55℃以上持续天数为4d,高于其它两组处理。QE制剂可以有效提高堆肥的养分含量,堆肥7d后总氮、总磷、总钾含量分别达到2.62%、3.04%、2.29%,比BJ组高16.25%、2.36%、4.09%,比CK组高29.00%、14.72%、16.84%。同时,添加QE制剂的堆肥品质符合国家《有机肥料》(NY525-2012)标准,且优于其它两组处理。此外,QE、BJ组堆肥7d的种子发芽率指数分别为93.33%、90.00%,堆体已完全腐熟,而CK组为31.67%,未腐熟。研究表明,QE制剂在畜禽粪便高温堆肥过程中具有促进升温、加强保温、减少氮素损失、提高养分含量、改善堆肥品质的作用。

关键词: 猪粪, QE制剂, 立式密闭发酵塔, 养分含量, 堆肥品质, 微生物-矿物质交互

Abstract: QE agent is a new composite material which contains microorganisms and minerals. In order to investigate the effects of the composite material on composting process and quality of manure, a 7 days composting experiment was conducted. The experiment included three treatments, no additives (CK), adding conventional microbial agent (BJ), and adding QE agent (QE). Pig manure was selected as the material and a vertical closed fermentation tower (capacity of 50 t) was selected as the reaction device. The results showed that at the 3rd day, the composting temperature of QE maximized to 72.7℃. It was earlier than treatment BJ and CK by 2 and 5 days. Besides, the duration of treatment QE whose composting temperature above 55℃ lasted for 4 days, was more than other 2 treatments. Adding QE agent could effectively improve the nutrient contents, and were 2.62%, 3.04%, 2.29% for total nitrogen, phosphorus, kalium, respectively. The nutrient contents of treatment QE were higher than treatment BJ by 16.25%, 2.36%, 4.09%, and higher than treatment CK by 29.00%, 14.72%, 16.84% . Moreover, the composting quality with adding QE agent reached the criterion- “Organic Fertilizer” (NY525-2012), and it was better than the other two treatments. Besides, the germination indexes of treatment QE and BJ were 93.33% and 90.00% at the 7th day. This showed that the piles of the two treatments were totally matured. However, the pile of treatment CK was not matured because of its low germination index (31.67%). In summary, the QE agent enhanced the temperature, strengthened the heat preservation, reduced the nitrogen loss, and improved the composting quality of livestock manure.

Key words: Pig manure, QE agent, Vertical closed fermentation tower, Nutrient content, Composting quality, Interaction between microorganism and mineral