中国农业气象

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模拟条件下生物腐殖酸肥对土壤磷素淋失及流失的影响

马金奉,朱昌雄,李红娜,耿兵,张丽,沙婧婧   

  1. 1.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;2.国家海洋局北海环境监测中心,青岛 266033
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-20 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-17
  • 作者简介:马金奉(1989-),女,博士生,研究方向为生态农业与清洁生产。E-mail:majinfeng00@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家水污染控制与治理科学与技术重大工程(2014ZX07101-012-001;2013ZX07103-006);国家科技支撑计划“重金属超标农田安全利用技术研究与示范”项目(2015BAD05B01)

Effects of Bio-active Humic Acid Fertilizer on Phosphorus Leach-loss and Runoff- loss under Simulated Conditions

MA Jin-feng, ZHU Chang-xiong, LI Hong-na, GENG Bing, ZHANG Li, SHA Jing-jing   

  1. 1.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 2.North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266033
  • Received:2017-02-20 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-17

摘要: 通过模拟淋溶和径流实验,考察单施生物腐殖酸肥(BHA)后磷在竖直及水平方向的迁移能力,并通过室外小白菜种植实验进一步开展淋溶和径流中磷的行为研究,考察单施BHA对小白菜长势、产量的影响及对受纳水体水质的污染风险。实验以施化肥(CF)和不施肥(NOP)为对照。结果表明,(1)在模拟淋溶及径流实验中,经过8次浇水,BHA处理组的淋溶液及径流液中TP含量的最高值及平均值均高于CF及NOP处理组,在磷淋失量及淋失率上,3个处理间均无显著差异;在磷流失量及流失率上,BHA与CF无显著差异,二者均显著高于NOP处理组,其磷流失量分别比NOP高208.96%、147.01%,流失率分别比NOP高1.98%、1.39%。(2)室外小白菜种植的淋溶及径流实验中,在对小白菜长势的影响方面,BHA与CF无显著差异,二者均显著高于NOP处理组;在对小白菜产量及植株吸磷量的影响方面,CF处理组显著高于BHA及NOP。在磷淋失量上,BHA与CF无显著差异,二者均显著高于NOP处理组;在磷流失量上,BHA处理组显著高于CF及NOP,分别高78.52%、82.48%。研究表明,尽管BHA中的磷不如CF易被小白菜吸收利用,但是二者对小白菜长势的影响无显著差异;BHA施用后磷更易随径流液流失,而不易随淋溶液淋失,因此,施用BHA后应避免立即灌溉,尤其是大水漫灌。

关键词: 生物腐殖酸, 磷, 淋溶, 径流, 富营养化

Abstract: The movability of phosphorus (P) in the vertical and horizontal directions was investigated with the application of bio-active humic acid fertilizer (BHA) under simulated leaching and runoff experiments. Outdoor leaching and runoff experiments were also conducted with the Chinese cabbage planting, in which the effects of BHA on the growth and yields of the Chinese cabbage and their risk on the water quality were investigated as well. Treatments with chemical fertilizer (CF) and no phosphorus application (NOP) were carried out as control. The results showed that, (1) after watering for eight times, the highest and average value of TP content in the water for BHA treatment were higher than that for CF and NOP treatments, both in simulated leaching and runoff experiments; but there were no significant difference on P leach-loss amount and leach-loss rate among the three treatments. Also there was no significant difference on P runoff-loss amount and runoff-loss rate between BHA and CF treatments. Nevertheless, P runoff-loss amount and runoff-loss rate for the two treatments were both significant higher than that for the NOP treatment (P runoff-loss amount of BHA and CF treatment was 208.96% and 147.01% higher than NOP treatment, respectively; and P runoff-loss rate of BHA and CF treatment was 1.98% and 1.39% higher than NOP treatment, respectively). (2) As for the outdoor leaching and runoff experiments, there was no significant difference on growth status of the Chinese cabbage between BHA and CF treatment, and both of them were significantly better than that for NOP treatment. Moreover, the yield of the Chinese cabbage and the P content in the vegetable were significantly higher in the CF treatment than that in the BHA and NOP treatment. There was no significant difference on P leach-loss amounts between BHA and CF treatment, while both of them were significant higher than NOP treatment. Nevertheless, P runoff-loss amount of BHA treatment was significant higher than that with CF and NOP treatments (78.52% and 82.48%, respectively). As a result, it was pointed out that, although P in CF treatment was easier to be absorbed by Chinese cabbage than BHA treatment, the two treatments showed no significant differences on the growth of vegetables. P loss was easier from runoff solution rather than leaching solution after BHA was applied, and thus it was suggested that immediate irrigation, especially broad irrigation, should be avoided.

Key words: Bio-active Humic Acid, Phosphorus, Leaching, Runoff, Eutrophication