中国农业气象

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吕梁山南部乡宁县酿酒葡萄种植的气候适应性分析

吕爱丽,霍治国,杨建莹   

  1. 1.山西省临汾市气象局,临汾 041000;2.中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室,北京 100081;3.南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心,南京 210044
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-21 出版日期:2018-01-20 发布日期:2018-01-19
  • 作者简介:吕爱丽(1971-),女,高级工程师,主要从事气象服务工作。E-mail:lvaili1@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    “十二五”国家科技支撑计划课题(2011BAD32B02)

Climate Adaptability Analysis for Wine Grape at Xiangning County in Southern of Lvliang Mountains

LV Ai-li, HUO Zhi-guo, YANG Jian-ying   

  1. 1. Linfen Meteorological Bureau of Shanxi Provice, Linfen 041000, China; 2.Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081; 3.Collaborative Innovation Center of Meteorological Disaster Forecast, Early-Warning and Assessment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044
  • Received:2017-03-21 Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-01-19

摘要: 以山西吕梁山南部乡宁县为代表,基于乡宁站1972?2015年的气象观测资料、乡宁戎子酒庄有限公司2009?2015年的酿酒葡萄实验观测数据,运用数理统计和相关分析等方法,分析乡宁地区酿酒葡萄种植的光、热、水等气候条件,并通过葡萄生长季的温度、降水、日照、光热系数以及成熟期的水热系数等指标,评价乡宁地区酿酒葡萄种植的气候适宜性,揭示吕梁山南部地区发展酿酒葡萄生产的气候优势。结果表明:(1)乡宁地区年无霜期平均为202.8d,≥10℃积温平均为3498.0℃·d,最冷月低温均值?4.4℃,极端最低气温?21.6℃,气候条件十分优越,适宜酿酒葡萄种植。(2)20世纪90年代以前,葡萄生长季积温少,可种植中、早熟酿酒葡萄品种,随着气候变暖,90年代以后,积温大幅增加,满足了种植晚熟酿酒葡萄品种的热量条件。(3)葡萄生长季光、温、水资源及其在关键发育时段的分布特征总体有利于葡萄生长发育和优质品质的形成,但4月中旬葡萄萌芽期霜冻概率为22.7%,存在低温灾害风险,夏季无38℃以上高温天气,7、8月个别年份降水偏多,易出现连阴雨天气,对葡萄糖度造成一定影响。(4)相关分析表明,葡萄糖度与葡萄成熟期光、热因子呈正相关,与水分因子呈负相关,成熟期湿度对葡萄糖度影响极显著。葡萄成熟前一个月(9月)平均气温21.9℃,降水量74.4mm,日照时数6.7h,气温日较差为10.6℃,水热系数为1.5,温度条件优越、日照充足、早晚温差大、降水少,具有优质酿酒葡萄生长的气候环境。种植试验表明,乡宁县葡萄含糖量达到酿造高品质葡萄酒的标准,具有经济栽培的价值。

关键词: 酿酒葡萄, 种植, 气候条件, 吕梁山南部

Abstract: In this study, Xiangning was selected as a typical representation of the southern of Lvliang Mountains. The data used in this study included the meteorological data from Xiangning meteorological station during 1972?2015, and wine grape experimental data from 2009 to 2015 provided by Rongzi Limited Company of Xiangning. Wine grape-related climatic conditions such as sunshine, temperature, rainfall, and water heat coefficient were analyzed using statistical methods to assess the climate adaptability of wine grape planting in this area. The results showed that: (1) the average frost-free day of grape in Xiangning was 202.8d. The accumulated temperature ≥10℃was 3498.0℃·d. The average temperature of the coldest month was ?4.4℃, and the extreme minimum temperature was ?21.6℃. These climatic conditions satisfied the grape growth in southern of Lvliang Mountains. (2) The accumulated temperature before 1990 was small and therefore favored the early-maturing and middle-maturing varieties of wine grapes. The accumulated temperature after 1990 had increased substantially as a result of global warming, hence late-maturing varieties of wine grapes were favored to plant. (3) The agro-climatic resources of sunlight, temperature, and water, and their distributions during grape growing season generally were beneficial to the growth and the quality development of wine grapes. Low temperature disasters existed as the frost probability was 22.7% in mid-April. Summer maximum temperature in this area was lower than 38℃. Continuous rainfalls in July and August in some years influenced the sugar content of wine grapes. (4) Significant positive relationships between grape sweetness level and light and heat conditions were detected during the grape mature period, while negative correlations existed between grape sweetness level and water conditions, especially humidity. The average temperature, precipitation, sunlight, diurnal temperature range, and water heat coefficient during the mature month of wine grape (September) were 21.9℃, 74.4mm, 6.7h, 10.6℃, and 1.5, respectively. Favorable temperature conditions, enough sunlight, large diurnal temperature range, and small rainfall formed a climatic environment for the growth of wine grapes with good qualities. Planting experiments showed that sugar content in wine grapes meet the standards for making high quality wine, which proved that this area was suitable for commercial planting of wine grapes.

Key words: Wine grape, Planting, Climate conditions, Southern of Lvliang Mountains