中国农业气象

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花粉源尺寸对水稻花粉扩散的影响

张洁,王勇群,胡凝,江晓东,刘子贺,裴新梧   

  1. 1.河海大学农业科学与工程学院,南京 210098;2.南京信息工程大学大气环境中心/江苏省农业气象重点实验室,南京 210044;3.中国农业科学院生物技术研究所,北京 100081
  • 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-11
  • 作者简介:张洁(1977?),女,博士,教授,研究方向为农业气象和农业水土工程。E-mail:zhangjiejxd@hhu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41505096);转基因生物新品种培育科技重大专项(2018ZX08011-001)

Effect of Source Size on Rice Pollen Diffusion under Field Experiments

ZHANG Jie, WANG Yong-qun, HU Ning, JIANG Xiao-dong, LIU Zi-he, PEI Xin-wu   

  1. 1.College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hehai University, Nanjing 210098, China; 2.Atmospheric Environment Center/ Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agriculture Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044;3. Institute of Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
  • Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-11

摘要: 以花粉为介导的基因飘流是水稻转基因逃逸的主要途径之一,因此,掌握花粉扩散规律对于水稻基因飘流研究具有重要意义。本文设计了5m×5m(TR1)、10m×10m(TR2)和15m×15m(TR3)三种花粉源尺寸,通过观测单位面积的有效穗数、每穗的开花颖花数和单个颖花的花粉量以及主风向上的花粉沉降量,计算了花粉源强和有效源强比,就花粉源尺寸对花粉源强、花粉沉降量和有效源强比以及花粉扩散距离的影响进行研究。结果表明:(1)花粉源尺寸不影响单位面积的花粉源强,只改变总源强的大小。TR1、TR2和TR3的总源强比例为1:4:9。(2)花粉源尺寸不改变主风向上花粉沉降量的空间分布特征。在花粉源区,花粉沉降量先迅速增加,达到最大值后缓慢下降;在下风区,花粉沉降量与距离的关系可用负指数形式表达。(3)花粉源尺寸越大,各个距离上的花粉沉降量就越多,花粉扩散距离也相应增加。但是,这种效应会随着花粉源尺寸的增大而逐渐减弱。(4)所有处理的有效源强比为27.9%~33.4%,意味着所有花粉中仅30%左右可以扩散到源区以外可能产生基因飘流。然而,随着花粉源尺寸的增大,有效源强比逐渐减小。(5)风对不同花粉源尺寸处理的影响类似。大风增加了有效源强比和花粉扩散距离,而风向主要影响有效源强比。需要注意的是,风对大尺寸花粉源的影响更显著。

关键词: 水稻, 花粉源尺寸, 花粉源强, 花粉沉降量, 有效源强比

Abstract: Pollen-mediated gene flow from rice is one of the main ways of transgenic escape. Therefore, it is great significance to master the rule of pollen diffusion for the study of gene flow. In this study, three treatments with different source size of 5m×5m(TR1), 10m×10m(TR2) and 15m×15m(TR3) were designed. Rice panicles per unit area, flowering spikelets per panicle, pollen grains for each spikelet and pollen depositions along the main wind direction were observed to calculate pollen source strength per unit area and effective source strength ratio. The effect of source size on pollen source strength, pollen deposition, effective source strength ratio and pollen diffusion distance was studied. The results showed that: (1) source size did not affect the pollen source strength per unit area, while it could only change the total source strength. The proportion of total source strength between TR1, TR2 and TR3 was 1:4:9. (2) Source size did not change the characteristic of pollen deposition along the main wind direction. The pollen deposition first had a rapid increase and then declined after the peaks within the source area. In the downwind, pollen deposition could be expressed as the negative exponential function of distance. (3) The pollen source size was larger, the pollen deposition at different distances was greater, and the pollen diffusion distance was increased accordingly. However, this effect would levelled off with a larger pollen source size. (4) 27.9%?33.4% of the effective source strength ratio for three treatments meant that only about 30 percent pollen could escape and dropped down out of the source area, which might lead to gene flow. But, the effective source strength ratio would gradually decrease, when the pollen source size was increasing. (5) There were similar effects of wind on pollen diffusion between different treatments. The effective source strength ratio was larger and the pollen diffusion distance was farther at higher wind speed. Wind direction mainly affects the effective source strength ratio. It should be noted that the wind had a more significant influence on the larger pollen source.

Key words: Rice, Pollen source size, Pollen source strength, Pollen deposition, Effective source strength ratio