中国农业气象

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 开花期复水对受旱冬小麦叶片状态和产量结构的补偿效应

 江梦圆,薛晓萍,杨再强,赵红,董智强,徐祎,邹俊丽   

  1.  1.江苏省农业气象重点实验室/南京信息工程大学,南京 210044;2.山东省气候中心,济南 250031;3.泰安农业气象试验站,泰安 271000
  • 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-04-17
  • 作者简介:江梦圆,E-mail:jmysuzhou@126.com
  • 基金资助:
     公益性行业(气象)科研专项“干旱气象科学研究:我国北方干旱致灾过程及机理”(GYHY201506001);十三五山东重大气象工程项目[鲁发改农经(2017)97号]

 Compensation Effects of Rewatering at Flowering Stage on Leaf State and Yield Structure of Winter Wheat under Drought

 JIANG Meng-yuan, XUE Xiao-ping, YANG Zai-qiang, ZHAO Hong, DONG Zhi-qiang, XU Yi, ZOU Jun-li   

  1.  1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology/Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2. Shandong Climate Center, Jinan 250031; 3. Taian Agrometeorological Experiment Station, Tai′an 271000
  • Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-04-17
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  以冬小麦“济麦22”为供试品种,于拔节?开花期设置4个水平的水分控制试验:在拔节前将各小区20cm土层土壤湿度控制在60%左右,拔节期(4月2日)按照正常补水量(75mm)的80%(W1)、50%(W2)、25%(W3)和0%(W4)进行一次性灌溉,之后不再补水,使各处理植株在不同时段受到不同程度的干旱胁迫;以正常灌溉管理的大田为对照(CK,土壤湿度保持在65%~75%)。然后于开花期(4月26日)统一复水至土壤湿度达90%,直至冬小麦成熟土壤湿度与CK保持一致。分别观测干旱胁迫和复水条件下冬小麦单株叶面积、叶片含水率、叶绿素含量、产量及产量结构等数据,研究复水对不同强度干旱胁迫下冬小麦生长发育的补偿效应。结果表明:拔节?开花期干旱处理后,冬小麦叶片含水率、叶面积和叶绿素含量均有不同程度的降低,干旱程度越重,降低幅度越大。复水后,W1、W2和W3处理叶片含水率和叶面积均能恢复至CK水平,恢复所需时间与胁迫程度正相关;叶绿素含量的恢复程度随胁迫程度的升高而降低。W4处理的复水补偿效应最弱,叶片含水率、叶面积和叶绿素含量均显著低于CK,降幅分别为8.7%、21.2%和32.3%。控水末期,4个干旱处理组中仅W4处理达特旱水平,可见,特旱水平下的胁迫将引起冬小麦叶片不可逆损伤,复水后仍无法恢复。干旱胁迫导致冬小麦产量和穗粒数呈减少趋势,不孕小穗率呈增加趋势,其变化幅度与干旱胁迫程度有关。与CK相比,各处理组冬小麦产量及不孕小穗率均有显著差异;对穗粒数而言,仅W3、W4处理达显著水平,降幅为20.0%和23.3%。花后复水各处理组的千粒重均能达到CK水平,表现出明显的补偿效应。由此可知,产量及产量构成要素中千粒重的复水补偿效应最明显,其次是穗粒数,产量和不孕小穗率最弱。

关键词:  , 冬小麦, 干旱, 补偿效应, 叶片, 产量结构

Abstract:  In order to investigate the compensation effects of rewatering during flowering stage on leaf state and yield structure of winter wheat, four drought treatment were set during jointing-flowering stage by using winter wheat variety ‘Jimai 22’ as the test material. Before jointing stage of winter wheat, soil moisture of 20cm soil layer in each treatment should be controlled at about 60%. This experiment carried out one-time irrigation of water according to 80% (W1), 50% (W2), 25% (W3) and 0% (W4) of normal water replenishment (75mm) at jointing stage (April 2). This led winter wheat in different treatments to experience different levels of drought stress at different times. W1, W2, W3 and W4 treatments showed moderate drought, severe drought, severe drought and extreme drought at the end of water control respectively. Winter wheat with normal irrigation in the field was as control (CK, soil moisture, 65%-75%). At flowering stage (April 26), each treatment was rewatered until soil moisture reached 90%. Soil moisture of each treatment was consistent with CK before winter wheat matured. The effects of drought stress and rewatering on leaf area, leaf water content, chlorophyll content, yield and yield structure of winter wheat were investigated. The results showed that leaf water content, leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased with the increase of drought intensity. Leaf water content and leaf area in W1, W2 and W3 treatments recovered to CK levels after rewatweing. The time required for recovery was positively related to the degree of stress. The degree of recovery of chlorophyll content in those treatments decreased with the increase of stress. The compensation effect of rewatering in W4 treatment were the weakest. Compared with control, these parameters under extreme drought treatment were still significantly declined of 8.7%, 21.2% and 32.3% after rewatering, respectively. At the end of water control, only W4 treatment in the four drought treatment groups reached the extreme drought level. This indicated that extreme drought could cause irreversible damage to winter wheat leaves, and rewatering could not be recovered. Drought stress resulted in the decrease of yield and grains per spike and the increase of infertility spikelet rate. The decrease and increase were related to the degree of drought stress. Compared with control, the yield and infertility spikelet rate in each treatment group were significantly different. As for grains per spike, only W3 and W4 treatments reached significant levels, with a decrease of 20.0% and 23.3%. Rewatering after flowering, thousand grains weight of each treatment group all recovered to CK level, showing obvious compensation effects. Among the yield and yield structure, the most obvious compensation effect was thousand grains weight, and then grains per spike. The compensation effects of yield and infertility spikelet rate were the weakest.

Key words:  Winter wheat, Drought, Compensation effect, Leaves, Yield structure

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