中国农业气象

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涝胁迫对杂交中稻形态和产量的影响

吴启侠,朱建强,晏军,黄成涛   

  1. 1.长江大学农学院,荆州 434025;2.湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心,荆州 434025
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-17 出版日期:2016-04-20 发布日期:2016-04-18
  • 作者简介:吴启侠(1982-),博士生,主要从事作物生产的水土环境调控研究。E-mail:wqx1144@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201203032);湖北省重点(优势)学科作物学(长江大学)(2013XKJS)

Morphology of Middle-season Hybrid Rice in Hubei Province and Its Yield Under Different Waterlogging Stresses

WU Qi-xia,ZHU Jian-qiang,YAN Jun,HUANG Cheng-tao   

  1. 1. College of Agriculture, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, Hubei Province, China;2.Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025
  • Received:2015-06-17 Online:2016-04-20 Published:2016-04-18

摘要: 湖北平原地区夏季降水多,水稻易受涝害,为了解涝对杂交水稻生长及产量的影响,以杂交中稻丰两优香1号为试材,在拔节期、孕穗期和灌浆期分别设计不同涝淹深度和受涝时间的胁迫试验。结果表明:杂交中稻受涝胁迫后,植株高度、节间长度均增长,灌浆期、孕穗期受涝胁迫后植株高度增长幅度大于拔节期,可用二元一次方程拟合水稻株高增长量(YPH)、节间长度(YIL)与受涝天数(D)和涝淹深度(H)之间的关系,涝淹深度对植株高度、节间长度的影响大于受涝天数。不同生育期受涝水稻减产顺序表现为孕穗期>拔节期>灌浆期,可用二元一次方程拟合水稻相对产量(Ry)与受涝天数(D)和涝淹深度(H)的关系,拔节期和灌浆期受涝天数对产量的影响大于受涝深度,而孕穗期涝淹深度的影响大于受涝天数。拔节期受涝胁迫结实率显著下降,孕穗期结实率和千粒重显著下降,灌浆期主要表现为结实率显著下降,其次是千粒重下降。拔节期、孕穗期和灌浆期受涝胁迫后,穗下部籽粒结实率的相对湿害指数分别为0.69%~44.01%、20.87%~71.14%(没顶淹9d为100%)、3.15%~81.84%;穗中部籽粒结实率的相对湿害指数分别为4.49%~32.36%、14.31%~62.21%(没顶淹9d为100%)、10.02%~66.89%;穗上部籽粒结实率的相对湿害指数分别为-0.77%~14.72%、7.64%~50.10%(没顶淹9d为100%)、2.75%~59.66%。

关键词: 杂交水稻, 淹涝, 受涝时间, 株高, 节间, 产量, 结实率

Abstract: In Hubei plain area, there is a plenty of rainfall in summer, so that rice plants are liable to suffer from waterlogging damage. In order to know the influences of waterlogging on hybrid rice in growth and yield, Fengliangyouxiang 1 (one of the hybrid rice varieties) was used as the test material, and the experiments of waterlogging stresses on it were made individually in the jointing, booting and filling stages, the experimental treatments were designed as different combinations of waterlogged depth and waterlogged time (3, 6 and 9 days). The results showed that, after waterlogging stress, the rice height and the internode length all present elongation. At filling stage and booting stage under waterlogging stress, the plant height growth rate was greater than the jointing stage. The linear relationship between the hybrid rice height increase (YPH), internode height (YIL) and waterlogged days (D), waterlogged depth (H) was significant, correlation coefficient was up to more than 0.9000, and the waterlogged depth had a greater influence on the plant height and internode length than waterlogged days. The reduction of output that caused by waterlogging stress at different stages of rice was different, the order was booting stage>jointing stage>filling stage. The linear relationship between the relative yield (Ry) and D, H was significant, correlation coefficient was up to more than 0.9000, and waterlogged days had a greater influence on the yield than waterlogged depth at jointing and filling stage, in contrast, at booting stage. As far as yield component was concerned, waterlogging stress at jointing stage lead to yield loss mainly because seed setting rate decreased, while at booting stage 1000-grain weight and seed setting rate decreased, at filling stage mainly in the following aspects, first, the decline of seed setting rate, then, the decrease of effective ears. At jointing stage, booting stage and filling stage under waterlogging stress, the relative moisture index of the lower panicle was 0.69%-44.01%, 20.87%-71.14% [100% for completely submergence for 9 days (aliased as CS9)] and 3.15%-81.84% respectively, the relative moisture index of the central panicle was 4.49%-32.36%, 14.31%-62.21%(100% for CS9)and 10.02%-66.89% respectively, and the relative moisture index of upper panicle was -0.77%-14.72%, 7.64%-50.10%(100% for CS9)and 2.75%-59.66%.

Key words: Hybrid rice, Waterlogged depth, Waterlogged time, Rice height, Internode, Yield, Seed setting rate