中国农业气象

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 微生物异位发酵床处理蛋鸡养殖废弃物的效果

 李路瑶,李佳彬,冯烁,宋婷婷,张燕荣,朱昌雄,耿兵   

  1.  中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所农业清洁领域团队,北京 100081
  • 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-08-19
  • 作者简介:李路瑶,E-mail:liluyao0215@163.com
  • 基金资助:
     国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题(2017ZX07603-002)

 Treatment Effects of Ectopic Microbial Fermentation on Layer Hens Waste

 LI Lu-yao, LI Jia-bin, FENG Shuo, SONG Ting-ting, ZHANG Yan-rong, ZHU Chang-xiong, GENG Bing   

  1.  Agricultural Clear Watershed Group, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing 100081, China
  • Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-08-19
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  实验采用微生物异位发酵床技术对蛋鸡养殖废弃物进行发酵处理,以期为该技术的推广应用并解决蛋鸡养殖环境污染问题提供理论依据。具体做法为,将玉米秸秆与椰壳按质量比2:1混合,并均匀加入微生物菌剂作为异位发酵床垫料,调节垫料初始含水率为51.97%,将其填入异位发酵床内,将垫料厚度调整为60cm,预发酵4d后开始处理蛋鸡养殖废弃物。实验从2019年10月28日开始,至2020年1月8日结束,期间定时对上层(0-20cm)、中层(20-30cm)、下层(30-40cm)垫料分别取样,探讨不同层次垫料的基础理化性质、营养成分以及微生物数量的变化。结果表明:实验期间异位发酵床不同层次垫料的温度、含水率、pH和电导率均呈一致的变化趋势,且各层之间差异不显著。发酵床垫料的温度维持在50~75℃,含水率处于45%~58%,pH值由6.1波动升至8.97,电导率呈持续增加趋势。实验全过程垫料平均pH在8.0左右,确保了发酵床的稳定运行。与实验起始时相比,实验结束时发酵床不同层次垫料的TN、TP和TK含量均极显著增加(P<0.01),而C/N呈极显著下降趋势(P<0.01),有机质含量变化不显著;垫料对蛋鸡养殖废水和粪便的吸纳系数分别为1.05和3.50,其养分含量均符合NY525-2012关于总养分及有机质质量分数的标准。本发酵体系以细菌活动为主,放线菌次之,其好氧发酵能够有效降解和消纳蛋鸡养殖废弃物。

关键词:  异位发酵床, 蛋鸡养殖废弃物, 微生物, 畜禽废弃物

Abstract:  In order to provide theoretical basis for application of microbial ectopic fermentation system technology and solve the environmental pollution problem of laying hens, microbial ectopic fermentation system was used to treat the waste produced from layer breeding and to reduce environmental pollution. The specific procedures were mixed corn straw and coconut shell according to the mass ratio of 2:1, evenly added microbial agents as the ectopic fermentation system material. The initial moisture and thickness of the litter were adjusted to 51.97% and 60cm, respectively, and filled it in the ectopic fermentation system. After 4 days of pre-fermentation, laying hens breeding waste was treated by the ectopic fermentation system. From the beginning of the experiment on October 28, 2019 to the end of the experiment on January 8, 2020, the samples were taking from the upper layer (0-20cm), middle layer (20-30cm), and lower layer (30-40cm) in the different stage of experiment, further to explore the changes of physical and chemical properties, nutrients components and microbial quantities. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the temperature, moisture content, pH and conductivity of different packing layers in the ectopic fermentation system. The maximum temperature of the fermentation system was between 50-75℃, the moisture content was between 45%-58% and the pH value was changed in the range of 6.10-8.97, and the conductivity showed a trend of continuous increase in the all experimental process. In the end of the experiment, the average pH of the litter was about 8.0, which could ensure the stable operation of the fermentation system. Compared with the beginning of the experiment, the TN, TP and TK contents of different layers of litter increased significantly in the end of the experiment (P<0.01), while the organic matter content and C/N showed a decreasing trend. The organic matter content was insignificant difference and the C/N was significant (P<0.01). The absorption coefficients of the litter for wastewater and feces was 1.05 and 3.50, respectively in the end. The fermentation system was dominated by bacterial activity, followed by actinomycetes. The nutrient content of the fillers was in accordance with the standards of NY525-2012 for total nutrients and organic matter mass fractions. This fermentation system can effectively degrade and absorb layer breeding waste.

Key words:  Ectopic fermentation system, Layer breeding waste, Microorganism, Poultry waste

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