Current Issue
20 October 2021 Volume 42 Issue 10
Analysis of Variation of Agricultural Climate Resources in Songnen Plain under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 Scenarios in Next 30 Years
LI Xin-hua, ZHANG Lei, JIANG Shu-kun, XU Yin-long
2021, 42(10):  811-822.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.001
Asbtract ( 20 )   PDF (6992KB) ( 17 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
Songnen plain is an important commodity grain base in China, which has characteristics of suitable climate and fertile soil. It is important for national food security to study impact of climate change on crop production in this region. Based on observational data of reference period(1961−1990) in Songnen plain, statistical method was applied to correct deviation between simulation data and observation data, five-day moving average method was used to calculate accumulated temperature ≥10℃, and characteristics of spatial and temporal changes of agricultural climate resource indicators in next 30 years in study area relative to reference period were analyzed. The results showed that under two emission scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, average temperature in most parts of Songnen plain in next 30 years would be between 4−8℃, which was 2.5−2.8℃ higher than reference period, and temperature increase in northern region was greater than that in southern region. In addition, accumulated temperature ≥10℃ in most areas was between 3000−3700℃·d, and increase of 500−550℃·d and 600−670℃·d under two scenarios respectively, of which increase in some areas in south exceeded 670℃·d. Annual precipitation was between 460−580mm in most places, with increments ranging from 50mm to 90mm. In terms of spatial distribution, precipitation increment in south was more than that in north. Rainfall increases in southern region exceeded 90mm, while annual increase in northern region was less than 50mm. Rainfall increments in the same area of two scenarios showed that RCP4.5 was more than RCP8.5. Compared with baseline period, annual radiation had been reduced by 85−100MJ·m−2, and radiation during growing season had been reduced by 10−40MJ·m−2, and change trend was not obvious. In summary, agricultural climate resources in Songnen plain would show a trend of overall improvement in the future, and crops could be planted for a relatively longer period in the future. Therefore, crops with longer growth periods should be planted appropriately to avoid increase of temperature, which would shorten growth period of existing crops and cause yield lower situation occurred. At the same time, the research results have guided significance for agricultural production such as adjusting planting structure, changing planting measures, and selecting crop varieties, so as to achieve purpose of fully utilizing of climate resources and increasing crop yields.
Characteristic Analysis of Source Area Distribution of Eddy Covariance and Large Aperture Scintillometer in an Oasis-Desert Ecotone
RONG Xing-xing, WANG He-song, CHU Jian-min, AI Jin-long
2021, 42(10):  823-835.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.002
Asbtract ( 11 )   PDF (5241KB) ( 11 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
Eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS) are two commonly used methods for surface flux observation. Investigating the distribution of source area is helpful to improve the spatial representativeness and enhance the understanding of scaling issues such as up-scaling of surface flux data. Based on the observation data from EC and LAS in Minqin, an oasis-desert ecotone, the distribution and variation of source areas were analyzed. In different directions of the source area, the influence of the ratio of weighted-footprint area between EC and LAS (CEC&LAS) on the difference of observed values was compared. The results indicate that: (1) the northwest wind prevails in the non-growing season, while the east wind prevails in the growing season. The spatial distribution of source areas consistent with the prevailing wind direction, and the source areas in the non-growing season are larger than those in the growing season. (2) Source areas of EC and LAS in stable atmospheric conditions are generally larger than those in unstable conditions. With the increase of source contribution (from 50% to 90%), the overlapping area and CEC&LAS also increase. In growing and non-growing season, source areas of EC and LAS distributed in an irregular shape. (3) Compared with the value in east and west, the CEC&LAS in north and south of growing season is higher. Meanwhile, the determination index (R2) in north and south is also greater than it is in east and west. It reveals that in some degree, CEC&LAS can explain the difference of the observation results between these two methods. This study has contributed to the improvement of the spatial representativeness of surface flux and provide a reference of methodology for the up-scaling of surface flux.
Potential Distribution of Table Grape in Sichuan Province and Its Climatic Characteristics Based on MaxEnt Model
ZHANG Yu-fang , WANG Ru-lin, LV Xiu-lan, JIN Yao, ZHAO Yi, LIANG Dong, WANG Ming-tian
2021, 42(10):  836-844.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.003
Asbtract ( 15 )   PDF (1968KB) ( 32 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
Based on the growth characteristics and physiological mechanism of table grape, the climatic factors affecting its planting and distribution were collected. Combined with the distribution information of table grape plantation, the maximum entropy model(MaxEnt) was used to analyze the potential distribution and climate characteristics of table grape in Sichuan. The results showed that, four domain environmental variables(cumulative contribution percentage of 89.8%) and their indicator ranges(80% of potential distribution area of table grapes) were active accumulated temperature ≥10℃(4145−6283℃·d), annual range of temperature (6.7−9.0℃), annual sunshine hours(924−1314h) and annual precipitation(804−1247mm). The highly suitable areas were mainly distributed in Guang'an, Chengdu, southwest Leshan, Yibin, Luzhou and the central part of Liangshan, with climatic characteristics of active accumulated temperature ≥10℃(5197−6082℃·d), annual range of temperature(6.5−7.6℃), annual sunshine hours(902−1241h) and annual precipitation(861−1124mm). The moderately suitable areas were distributed in the most areas of the basin except for the mountain areas around the basin, as well as in south of Liangshan and southwest of Panzhihua, with climatic characteristics of active accumulated temperature ≥10℃ (5053−6144℃·d), annual range of temperature(6.7−7.7℃), annual sunshine hours(868−1356h) and annual precipitation(807−1139mm). The lowly suitable areas were concentrated in the north of the basin, the mountain areas in the west of the basin and the north of Panxi area, with climatic characteristics of active accumulated temperature ≥10℃(3227−5549℃·d), annual range of temperature(7.8−13.4℃), annual sunshine hours(948−2049h) and annual precipitation(643−1187mm). The unsuitable areas were mainly located in the Western Sichuan Plateau and northeast Panxi. The areas of highly, moderately, lowly and unsuitable areas accounted for 11.8%, 23.6%, 23.1% and 41.5% of the total area of Sichuan respectively. The results showed that climate were the main environmental factors affecting the cultivation of table grape, and the leading role of the four selected domain variables was very obvious. The simulation results can provide a scientific reference for the planting decision of table grape in Sichuan.
Influence of Climate Warming in Future on the Green Grass Season for Alpine Grassland in Qiangtang Nature Reserve of Tibet
DU Jun, ZHOU Kan-she, GAO Jia-jia, Tsewangthondup
2021, 42(10):  845-858.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.004
Asbtract ( 10 )   PDF (748KB) ( 14 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
The daily meteorological variables observed at weather stations in the Qiangtang Nature Reserve of Tibet (QNRT), including average temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration from 1971 to 2019, were analyzed with the criteria on the 5℃ threshold temperature. Based on the variation characteristics of the green grass seasons(GGS) of alpine grasslands and their hydrothermal climate conditions in the recent 49 years were revealed with the support of the statistical analyses of the linear regression, the Mann-Kendall test method and the R/S method. In addition, the possible changes of the GGS were also assessed under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios, in order to well understand and accurately predict the dynamic change of the terrestrial ecosystems in the future. The study results indicate that the start date of GGS has been advanced at a rate of 2.81d·10y−1 while the end date has been delayed with a rate of 2.74d·10y−1, which has contributed to an increase in duration by 5.56 days per decade. The increasing trends in cumulative temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration were significant, with the rates of 75.86℃·d·10y−1, 15.84mm·10y−1 and 27.58h·10y−1, respectively. In terms of the decadal variation characteristics, the start dates were late while the end dates were early at all stations from 1970s to 1990s, leading to the shorter duration of GGS and the unfavorable hydrothermal conditions. In contrast, the start dates were early while the end dates were late at all stations from 2000s to 2010s, which contributed to the longer duration of GGS and the abundant hydrothermal resource. It was detected by M-K methods that the abrupt changes of start date, end date, and duration of GGS occurred in 2006, 1991, and 1988, respectively. In addition, the abrupt increases in cumulative temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration of GGS were also detected in 1988, 1999, and 1981, respectively. All values of H were larger than 0.5, indicating that the trends in early start date, late end date, longer duration will continue, and the increases in cumulative temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration will remain unchanged in the future. Under RCP4.5 emission scenario, the start date of GGS will be advanced by 10 days, while the end date will be delayed by 9 days, and the duration of GGS will prolonged by 17 days in QNRT in the next 80 years, which will be beneficial to pasture growth and livestock fattening, and also play a positive role in pasture production and restoration of the grassland ecosystem in this highland region.
Response of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Transient in Leaves of Tomato under Chilling Stress and Subsequent Recovery
HU Wen-hai, HU Xue-hua, YAN Xiao-hong, ZHOU Shen-tuan
2021, 42(10):  859-869.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.005
Asbtract ( 12 )   PDF (496KB) ( 10 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
In order to investigate the effects of chilling stress and subsequent recovery on photosystem II(PSII) reaction centers and acceptor side of PSII in tomato, a controlled experiment was conducted in artificial climate chamber of Jinggangshan University. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Zhongshu No.4) with 6-leaf stage was used for this experiment. Two treatments employed were: (1) control(CK): seedlings were cultured in artificial climate chamber with temperature range approximately 18−28℃, photosynthetic photo flux density (PPFD) approximately 600μmolm−2s−1, 12h photoperiod. (2) Chilling(CL): seedlings were transferred at the beginning of the photoperiod(7:00) to artificial climate box(ZRY-YY1000, Ningbo, China) with a 12h photoperiod and 200μmolm−2s−1 PPFD and temperature of 8℃. The CL treatment lasted 4 days and the plants were transferred at the beginning of the photoperiod(7:00) to the artificial climate chamber at normal temperature for 4 days. Throughout the experiment, chlorophyll fluorescence transient was examined in the youngest developmental leaf under chilling stress and subsequent recovery periods. The results showed that chilling reduced the photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic performance of PSII in tomato leaves, and induced photoinhibition. Chilling decreased the numbers of active PSII reaction centers per cross section(RC/CS) and the efficiency that a trapped electron can move further ahead of QA−(Ψo). Chilling also decreased the specific energy fluxes per cross section for absorption (ABS/CS), trapping(TRo/CS), electron transport(ETo/CS), and the quantum yield of electron transport beyond QA−(φEo), which suggested that chilling inhibited the photosynthetic electron transportation. At the same time, chilling also initiated defense mechanism: first, chilling induced the reversible inactivation of PSII reaction center and promoting heat dissipation to decrease of the absorption and transportation of light energy, and reduction the accumulation of excess excitation energy. Soon afterwards, chilling increased the capacity of PQ in the PSII receptor side to prevent the accumulation of excess excitation energy in PSII. In this study, chilling mainly inhibited PSII activity, but had little effect on PSI. The absorption of light energy by antenna pigment and the capture of light energy by PSII reaction centers were easier to recover than electron transfer, and high light would aggravate the degree of photoinhibition at the early stage of recovery.
Risk Assessment of Spring Frost Damage to Tea Plant in Anhui Province
LIU Rui-na, CHEN Jin-hua, CHEN Xi, CAO Wen
2021, 42(10):  870-879.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.006
Asbtract ( 17 )   PDF (5042KB) ( 14 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
In order to reduce the spring frost damage to tea plant in Anhui province, based on the daily meteorological observation data from1981 to 2017 of 45 stations, as well as garden area and tea production of 45 counties in tea plantation district from 1998 to 2017, the spring frost risk index was built by weighted index sum method. The index included comprehensive frequency of spring frost, sensitivity index of slope aspect, tea area and variation coefficient of yield reduction. The spring frost risk zoning was analyzed using the ANUSPLIN and geographic information system. The results showed that the areas of high-risk region, medium-risk region and low-risk region were118×104ha, 337×104ha, 353×104ha, and take 14.6%, 41.7% , 43.7% of the gross area of tea plantation district respectively in Anhui province. The high-risk region was mainly distributed in Jinzhai county, Huoshan county, Yuexi county, Qianshan county in Dabieshan tea area and the mountain areas with altitude above 600m in Jiangnan tea area, and scattered in the windward slope regions in Jiangbei tea area. The medium-risk region was mainly distributed in mountain areas with altitude below 600m in Dabieshan tea area and Jiangnan tea area, as well as hilly and low mountains in Jiangbei tea area. The low-risk region was mainly concentrated in the region along the Yangtze river, and scattered in low mountain areas in Jiangnan tea area. The spring frost risk index constructed in this paper can objectively reflect the risk level of spring frost damage to tea plant. This study provides a scientific foundation for tea disaster prevention and disaster management.
Risk Analysis of High Temperature Disaster during Summer Maize Flowering Period in Henan Province
XU Yan-hong, LIU Tian-xue, FANG Wen-song, LI Shu-yan
2021, 42(10):  879-888.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2021.10.007
Asbtract ( 17 )   PDF (3934KB) ( 62 )  
Related Articles | Metrics
In recent years, high temperature disaster occurred frequently in China, which had a serious impact on maize and became one of the main meteorological disasters endangering maize production. Based on daily maximum temperature observation data of 110 meteorological stations in the region from 1970 to 2019 and observational data of the summer maize booting period from 19 agro-meteorological observational stations in Henan province, the occurrence days, frequency and disaster risk of high temperature disaster were analyzed by using statistical and spatial analysis methods. Four key meteorological factors were selected to build integrated climatic indexes. The indices included the occurrence probability of temperature higher than 32℃ and 35℃, and the accumulation of temperature higher than 32℃ and 35℃. The results showed that: (1) the days and occurrence probability of temperature higher than 32℃ and 35℃ decreased from 1970s to 1980s, and increased since 1990s. The days of high temperature in 2010s during the summer maize flowering period was increased by 1.4d (≥32℃) and 1.5d (≥35℃), and the occurrence probability increased by 20.6 percent point (≥32℃) and 20.5 percent point (≥35℃). The days of high temperature during the summer maize flowering period was from 1.8 to 4.5d (≥32℃) and from 0.4 to 1.9d (≥35℃), and occurrence probability of high temperature was from 24.3% to 64.3% (≥32℃) and from 2.5% to 31.1% (≥35℃). The spatial distribution has significant difference, and the frequency in the southeastern was higher than other areas. (2) The accumulation of temperature higher than 32℃and 35℃ showed an increasing trend after decreased in the early stage. Compared with the 1980s, the accumulation of temperature in 2010s increased by 52.8℃·d (≥32℃) and 52.5(≥35℃). The accumulation of temperature higher than 32℃ was from 56.7℃·d to 156.4℃·d during the summer maize flowering period and that of higher than 35℃ was from 15.9 to 79.1℃·d, and accumulation of temperature in south was higher than that in the north, and it in the east was higher than that in the west. (3) Integrated risk indexes showed that high risk was mainly located in southeastern areas, which adjacent to the south part of Nanyang, Luohe, the east part of Xuchang, and Zhoukou, accounting for approximately 28.5% of the main summer maize planting area. The risk was moderate in the central region, accounting for approximately 56.2% of the main summer maize planting area. While the risk of heat stress was relatively low in Sanmenxia, Anyang and in the western part of Luoyang and Jiyuan, accounting for approximately 15.3% of the main summer maize planting area.