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20 August 2022 Volume 43 Issue 08
Evaluation and Projection of Temperature in Southwestern China by CMIP6 Models
JIN Cheng-xiu, JIANG Chao, ZHANG Xi-yue
2022, 43(08):  597-611.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.001
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Using on the CN05.1 monthly average temperature observation data set from 1961 to 2014 and the output data from 19 global climate models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), the simulation ability of CMIP6 models on the climatology spatial distribution and interannual variability of temperature in Southwestern China was systematically evaluated by means of Taylor diagram, Taylor index and interannual variability skill score. The variation characteristics of future temperature in this area were predicted under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. The results showed that: (1) compared with other seasons, most CMIP6 models had the best performance in simulating the spatial distribution of autumn temperature climatology during 1961-2014; and CMIP6 models underestimated the interannual variability of seasonal and annual average temperature. Among the 19 models, the best models simulated the temperature in Southwestern China were ACCESS-CM2, CMCC-CM2-SR5 and CMCC-ESM5. (2) The multi-model ensemble mean(MME) of 3 best-fit models simulated the climatology spatial distribution and interannual variability of average temperature better than the MME of 19 models. (3) Compared with the multi-year average temperature observed in the same period during 1961−2014, the seasonal and annual average temperature in Southwestern China showed an upward trend in the future under the four climatic scenarios, seasonal and annual average temeprature increased by 0.94−3.48℃. Under the four scenarios, the increase of average temperature in summer was the largest(2.17−3.48℃) and the interannual fluctuation range was the smallest, the increase of temperature in winter was the smallest(0.94−2.24℃) and the interannual fluctuation range was the largest. (4) In the early of 21st century, there was little difference in the increase of seasonal and annual average temperature under 4 scenarios. During the middle of the 21st century, the upward trend of seasonal and annual average temperature in high radiation forcing scenarios was gradually larger than that in low radiation forcing scenarios. (5) Under the four scenarios, the anomaly values of multi-year average temperature at the early (2015−2034), middle (2045−2064) and end (2081−2100) period of 21st century and the historical(1961−2014) observed temperature showed the spatial distribution characteristics that the northwest was greater than southeast of this region, and the high latitude and high altitude areas were greater than the low latitude and low altitude areas. With the passage of time, at the end of 21st century, the temperature anomaly in the same region was significantly higher under high forcing scenarios than that in low forcing scenarios.
Distribution Heterogeneity and Influencing Factors of Rice Irrigation Water Productivity Based on Field Investigation Data in Zhanghe Irrigation District
ZHENG Jing, TONG Ling, ZHAO Jin-miao, WU Xuan-yi, LI Peng
2022, 43(08):  612-621.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.002
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Based on the farmland scale of Zhanghe irrigation district and the field data of farmers' survey results and literature survey, the spatial heterogeneity of local rice irrigation water productivity and its influencing factors were analyzed, and the key influencing factors of irrigation water productivity were screened by using correlation analysis and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that: (1) in Zhanghe irrigation district, the rice yield in the main canal and the fourth main canal control villages was the minimum value and the irrigation water productivity in the third main canal control villages was the maximum and that of the main canal control villages was the minimum. (2) Irrigation water productivity showed a very significant negative correlation with irrigation water consumption per unit area, daily average solar radiation and soil silt content, and a very significant positive correlation with daily average temperature and soil clay content. (3) Irrigation water productivity was greatly affected by irrigation water consumption per unit area, nitrogen application rate, daily average temperature during growth period, daily average solar radiation and soil clay content. Therefore, management measures and meteorological factors are the key factors to improve rice irrigation water productivity in Zhanghe irrigation district. The research results will help to provide data support for improving local rice management level and irrigation water productivity.
Physiological Characteristics of Soybean Leaves at Different Growth Stages
LIU Jiang, LI Ming-qian, CHANG Jun-fei, CHENG Xi-han, WANG Li-wei, LIU Qing, GAO Xi-ning
2022, 43(08):  622-632.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.003
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The impacts of drought on agricultural production is a hot topic in agrometeorological research field. Soybean is an important economic crop. Clarifying its responses and adaptation characteristics to drought would be helpful to predict the soybean yields and improve agricultural production technology under global climate change. Therefore, authors conduct water control experiments in the scientific observing and experimental station of crop cultivation in northeast China. The soybean cultivar "Liaodou 15" was used and the drought and rewatering control experiments were conducted. At the flowering and full seed stage, the light drought (relative soil moisture 65%±5%), heavy drought (relative soil moisture 50%±5%), and control (relative soil moisture 80%±5%) treatments were set, respectively and the treatments lasted for 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. After the droughts, the rewatering treatments were conducted to make the relative soil moisture recover to the control level. When the water stress reached the set levels, the indexes including contents of soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the leaves were measured. These indices were also measured on the seventh day after rewatering to clarify the effects of drought and the compensation effects of rewatering. The results showed that the contents of soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of peroxidase (POD) increased significantly under light and heavy drought conditions at the flowering stage. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly under light drought condition. At the full seed stage, the soluble protein content, MDA content and SOD activity increased, but the POD activity decreased significantly. Rewatering showed compensation effects on soluble protein content, MDA content and SOD activity of soybean leaves, but did not show obvious compensation effect on POD. In conclusion, drought would probably induce peroxidation damage to soybean leaves, represented by the increase of antioxidant enzyme and osmotic regulation substance content. Rewatering can alleviate the peroxidation damage caused by drought, showing different degrees of compensation effect.
Effects of the Thickness of Buried Soil for Cold Prevention on the Vineyard Soil Temperature during the Overwintering Period at the Eastern Foot of Helan Mountain
WANG Jing, ZHANG Xiao-yu, ZHANG Lei, HU Hong-yuan, LI Na, LI Hong-ying
2022, 43(08):  633-643.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.004
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During the two 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 winters, field experiments with different thicknesses of buried soil for cold prevention were carried out in the vineyard at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain region. Combined with the monitoring results of soil temperature at different depths during the overwintering period, changes in root-zone soil temperature in the buried soil area of the vineyard were analyzed in this study. Understanding the effects of different thicknesses of buried soil on soil temperature could help the local grape community to assess freezing injury and manage buried soil during the overwintering period. The results showed that: (1) during the overwintering period of wine grapes, the soil temperature firstly decreased and then increased, and increased with the increase of soil depth, but the fluctuation decreased with the increase of soil depth. As the thickness of buried soil for cold prevention increased, the fluctuation of soil temperature was reduced. (2) The daily minimum soil temperature increased with the thickness of buried soil increased. Compared with no-buried soil (H0), buried soil that is 60cm thick (H60) improved the winter soil temperature at the depths of 20 cm and 40 cm by 0.2–2.7℃ (with an average of 1.1℃) and 0.1–1.3℃ (with an average of 0.6℃), respectively. (3) As the thickness of buried soil increased, at the three depths of 0cm, 20cm, and 40cm, the diurnal soil temperature range showed a decrease and the occurrence of the lowest soil temperature showed a time lag. By contrast, soil temperature at the depth of 60 cm was close to being constant. (4) Soil temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher at the taproot zone (C0) than at the root zones that are 50cm, 100cm, and 150cm away from the taproot (C50, C100, and C150). The further away from the taproot, the lower the soil temperature was. On days when soil temperature was the lowest during the overwintering period, for the three treatments of 30 cm, 40 cm, and 50 cm thick buried soil, soil temperature at the depth of 20cm at C0 was 1.7–2.2℃, 1.7–3.3℃, and 2.4–3.4℃ higher than at the root zones of C50, C100, and C150, respectively. Overall, the risk of root being damaged by freezing decreased with the increase of soil depth. Thicker buried soil could improve the soil temperature by more and hence reduce the fluctuations of soil temperature. As the thickness of buried soil increased, the occurrence of the lowest soil temperature was delayed during the overwintering period. The chance of winter freezing injury occurrence was reduced with the increase of the thickness of buried soil; the winter freezing injury was more likely to affect the secondary roots than the taproot.
Progresses of Crop Model Application and Its Integration with Remote Sensing Technology
PENG Hui-wen, ZHAO Jun-fang, XIE Hong-fei, FANG Shi-bo
2022, 43(08):  644-656.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.005
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Crop model remote sensing and play important roles in agricultural production monitoring, evaluation, and future prediction with their unique advantages. The integration technologies of crop model and remote sensing information have obvious application advantages and broad development prospects in monitoring, evaluation and prediction of large-scale and high-precision agricultural production. In order to promote the wider applications of these technologies in crop yield prediction, impact assessments of agrometeorological disaster, and agricultural decision-making to deal with climate change on a regional scale, the method of literature review were adopted in this paper. The development and application of crop models in Europe, United States, Australia and China were systematically summarized. The principle, characteristics and shortcomings of the current mainstream data integration methods were concluded. The practical applications of integration technologies of crop model and remote sensing information were summarized. The existing problems in improving the accuracy of data integration were discussed, and the future research direction was prospected. The results showed that the research and application of crop model and its integration with remote sensing data were extensive and intensive at home and abroad. The assimilation method could effectively improve the simulation accuracies of crop model, providing technical support for crop growth and yield evaluation on regional scales, impacts of climate change on yield, farmland management decision-making, etc. The uncertainties from crop model simulation results and remote sensing inversion data, diversities of data assimilation strategies, and scale effects were the limiting factors to further improve the accuracy and efficiency of integrated systems. Therefore, multi-source fusion of remote sensing data, multivariable cooperation in assimilation process, multi-type coupling of crop models, and high-performance parallel computing of data were the development trends of integrating crop models and remote sensing research in the future.
Agrometeorological Big Data Sharing Platform Design and Implementation
LI Xuan, WU Men-xin, HOU Ying-yu, ZHUANG Li-wei, HE Yan-bo, SUN Shao-jie
2022, 43(08):  657-669.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.006
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With the pluralistic development of modern agriculture and the rapid progress of information technologies such as big data, distributed storage, cloud computing and artificial intelligence, the agrometeorological services are gradually diversified, and the services are becoming improved refinement, and have better precision and intelligence. The spatial and temporal resolution of service products has been significantly improved, which have developed from weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual scale graphic products to refined gridded daily products. At the same time, the datum is growing explosively, and the demand for mass storage of data and products, rapid interactive analysis, real-time sharing and publishing is becoming more and more urgent. In order to improve the data analysis capabilities which include massive data rapid processing, multi-source data fusion and intelligent analysis, data mining, etc., and realize the sharing of agrometeorological data and products across the country, the National Meteorological Center established Agrometeorological Big Data Sharing Platform with browser/server mode using distributed big data technology (Hadoop), fusion of modern agrometeorological service technology and web architecture based on open source framework, which realized the distributed storage, sharing and management for multi-source agricultural meteorological data, and provided visualization of network data and products. The sharing platform was put into use nationwide in 2021, deployed on national servers to provide online service. The national and 31 provincial users can browse and query more than 200 data and products in 13 categories through the network. The sharing platform can share and exchange data between nation and province, which will form a unified application of agricultural meteorological big data sharing environment.
Influence Report of Weather on Agricultural Production in Spring 2022
WANG Chun-zhi, ZHENG Chang-ling, ZHANG Yan-hong, ZHANG Lei, QIAN Yong-lan
2022, 43(08):  670-673.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6362.2022.08.007
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Based on the daily national meteorological data in spring in 2022, relationships between meteorological factors and agricultural production in China were analyzed using statistical methods. The results showed that the national average air temperature in spring in 2022 was 12.1℃, which was the highest during the same period since 1961. The national average air temperature in the first ten days and the second ten days in March, and also in the first ten days in April, was abnormally higher than the same period from 1991 to 2020. The national average air temperature in the second ten days in May was obviously lower than the same period in the normal year. The year 2022 was a typical cold year in late spring. The national average precipitation in spring in 2022 was 154.0 mm, which was more than that in the same period in the normal year. In particular, the average precipitation in Sichuan in spring this year was the most since 1961. The national average sunshine was 649.2 hours, close to the same period in the normal year. The suitable sunshine and temperature, and also good soil moisture conditions were favorable for winter wheat growth with delayed sowing date in autumn in 2021 in Northern China, and the delayed-sowing winter wheat growing conditions continued to improve and upgrade in spring in 2022. The meteorological conditions in spring in 2022 were generally conducive to winter wheat growth and yield increase per hectare. The soil moisture and temperature conditions were suitable in most of the spring sowing areas, and the influence of phased low temperature was relatively light, which was conducive to the sowing and emergence of crops in spring. The progress of spring sowing was generally faster than that of the previous year. The seedlings growed well. It was sunny during most of winter wheat mature and harvest period in southern China, and the wheat harvest progressed well. But obvious drought in western Liaoning was unfavorable to spring sowing. In the late spring, heavy rainfall occurred in the east of Jianghan, the south of Jianghuai, the west of South China and the Southwest China. There were many rainy days and little sunshine in the south of Southwest China. At the end of spring, hot and dry weather appeared in some wheat areas in Eastern North China, Huang Huai. The bad weather had a certain negative impact on spring sowing and late grain filling of winter wheat in some of the above regions.